Flexautomotive EMC Laboratory Test Methods Capability

23. February 2016 08:08 by Christian in
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Key Equipment:

  • 3 Meter Semi-Anechoic Chamber (CISPR-25 & FCC compliant) Size: 20’ W x 30’ L x 18’ H

o   RF shielding effectiveness report #09-0212-6

o   MIL STD 285 (modified) and EN 50147-1 Normalized Site Attenuation (NSA) report #09-0212-6 CISPR 25 & ANSI C63.4-2003

o   Equipment Shielded Room

  • GM MILFORD Type Shielded Chamber Size: 4.9 m x 3.6 m x 3.1 m

o   MIL STD 285 (modified) and EN 50147-1 compliant

  • RF Amplifiers:

o   AR 10 KHz to 250 MHz / 250 W

o   AR 80 MHz to 1000 MHz / 200 W

o   AR 1000 MHz to 2000 MHz / 200 W

o   AR 2000 MHz to 4000 MHz / 200 W

o   AR 4000 MHz to 8000 MHz / 200 W

o   AR 8000 MHz to 18000 MHz / 200 W

  • EMI Receiver 9 KHz to 3 GHz
  • Spectrum Analyzer 9 KHz to 12.8 GHz; Spectrum Analyzer 10 Hz to 150 MHz
  • Antennas: Monopole, Biconical, Log-periodic, Octave, Horn, Hi Gain covering 10 KHz to 40 GHz
  • EMTEST CW500D, BCI injection probe & field monitoring probe
  • EMTEST and Schaffer Transient Pulse Generators:

o   Standards: ISO, ETS, DIN, GOST, JASO, SAE

o   OEM: BMW, Case New Holland, Class, Chrysler, Fiat, Ford, Freightliner, GM, Honda, Iveco, John Deere, Kia/Hyundai, Mack Truck, MAN, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Piaggio, Porsche, PSA, Renault, Scania, Smart, Toyota, Volvo, Volkswagen

  • TEM Cell (45 cm septum) 9 KHz to 200 MHz
  • Tri-Plate RF Immunity
  • ESD

o   temperature and humidity controlled room

o   HAEFELY up to ±30 KV capability

  • Signal Generators, Power Meters, Filed Monitoring & Field probes 80 MHz to 40 GHz for both metallic table (ISO 11452-2) and non-metallic (SAE J1113-21) table RF Immunity testing
  • Broad Band Artificial Networks for Direct RF Injection per SAE J1113-3
  • Artificial Networks (LISN) per ISO 7637-2, ISO 11452-4, CISPR-25, and CISPR-16-1-2
  • Rhode & Schwartz fixture required by Ford for RI Pulses
  • Pulse Generators required by Ford for CI 220, RI 130
  • EMTEST Conducted Transients Emissions Generator required by Chrysler
  • TESEO Fiber Optic Voltmeter and Oscilloscope Monitoring System
  • EMSCAN (1 MHz to 1700 MHz) tablet scan
  • Fiber Optic Communication System for CAN bus and various other protocols

 Automotive EMC Test Capability (12V & 24V Systems)

      Full testing capability:

  • FCA (Chrysler/Fiat): CS11979; CS00054
  • FMC (Ford): EMC-CS-2009.1; FMC1278
  • GM: GMW3097; GMW3172
  • VW: 80000; TL82566; TL 82466; TL82366; TL82066
  • Daimler: MBN 10284-2, MBN LV124-1, MBN LV124-2
  • Mitsubishi: ES- X82114-D, ES-X46238-E, ES-X82010, ES-X82115-D

      Partial testing capability:

  • Toyota: TSC7026G, TSC0500G, SC7001G, TSC7006G, TSC7508G
  • Nissan: 28400NDS05, 28400NDS02
  • BMW: GS 95002, GS 95003-2
  • Hyundai: ES96200

Test Methods Summary

RF Immunity

o   ISO 11452-4 - SAE J1113-4, ISO/IEC 61000-4-21 BCI Substitution/Closed Loop Method 10 KHz to 400 MHz

o   ISO 11452-2, SAE-J1113-21 - Anechoic Chamber (ALSE) 200 MHz to 18 GHz 150 V/m

o   ISO 11452-8 - Magnetic Field Immunity 15 Hz to 30 kHz Helmholtz Coil

o   ISO 11452-9 – Hand Portable Transmitters 360 MHz to 2.7 GHz (FCA, FMC)

o   ISO 11452-3 – TEM Cell (1 to 200 MHz)

o   IEC 61000-4-21 - Reverberation Mode Tuned 360 MHz to 3.1 GHz 300 V/m

o   SAE J1113-28 - Reverberation Mode Tuning Method (Radar Pulses 300 V/m)

o   SAE J1113-21 – ALSE without a Ground Plane  200 MHz to 3.2 GHz (150 V/m)

o   SAE-J1113-25 - Tri-Plate Method (DC to 1000 MHz)

o   SAE-J1113-24 - TEM Cell (1 to 200 MHz, 200 V/m) ISO 11452-3, Toyota

o   SAE J1113-3 - Direct RF Injection – Conducted Immunity (250 KHz to 400 MHz)

Magnetic Field Immunity

o   SAE J1113/22, MIL-STD-461E, ISO-11452-8 Helmholtz Coil (15 Hz  to 30 KHz)

o   Radiated Loop (20 Hz to 50 KHz)

RF Emissions

o   CISPR-25, SAE-J1113-41 Radiated (150 KHz to 3 GHz) – Antenna Measurements

o   CISPR-25, SAE-J1113-41 Conducted Voltage (150 KHz to 200 MHz) – Artificial Network Measurements

o   CISPR-25, SAE-J1113-41 Conducted Current (10 KHz to 200 MHz)  - Current Probe Measurements

o   CISPR-25, SAE-J1113-42 Conducted Transient Emissions

o   CE 421 FMC1278 Conducted Emissions (0.1 to 150 KHz)

o   Pin Conducted Emissions 150 KHz TO 110 MHz (LP-388C-41)

o   Near Field RF Emissions - EMSCAN (1 MHz to 1700 MHz)

Magnetic Field Emissions

o   MFE (15 Hz to 200 KHz): DC-10614, Peugeot B21 7110-C, Nissan 28401NDS02[3]

Conducted Transient Emission

o   ISO-7637-2; SAE J1113-42; FCA CS11979/CC00054; Ford EMC-CS-2009.1/FMC1278, GMW3097, Nissan, VW, Toyota, BMW

     Conducted Transient Immunity (Power Lines)

o   ISO-7637-2; ISO 16750-2; SAE J1113-11 (P1, P1b, P2a, P2b, P3a, P3b, 4, 5a, 5b) VDS = 60 V / 100 A

o   CI 220 Transient Disturbances FMC1278 (A1, A2-1, A2-2, C-1, C-2)

o   SAE J1113-2 Conducted Immunity 15 Hz to 250 KHz (all leads)

Coupled Transients Immunity (I/O Lines)

o   ISO-7637-3, SAE J1113-12 Capacitive Coupling Clamp (CCC), Direct Capacitor Coupling (DCC), LED Lighting Power Lines

o   RI 130 & RI 150 (50 Hz to 100 kHz) FMC1278 wire to wire coupling

Electrostatic Discharge

ISO 10605; SAE J1113-13; IEC 61000-4-2 ESD up to 30 KV

o   ESD Handling

o   ESD Operating (Field Coupled, Direct Coupled, Remote Inputs, Communication Lines)

Electrical Overstress Testing (ISO-16750-2, SAE J1113-2, FCA, FMC)

Operating Requirements

o   Supply Voltage Range

o   IOD - Ignition Off Draw

Supply Voltage Variations

o  Sneak Path

o  Supply Voltage Drop-Out

o  Supply Voltage Dips

o  Power Supply disconnection

§  Single/Multiple Line Interruption

§  Reset Behavior at Voltage Drop

o  Starting Profile

§  Engine Cold Cranking

§  Engine Warm Cranking / Stop – Start

o  Slow Decrease and Increase of Supply Voltage

o  Supply Voltage Ramp-up & Ramp-down

o  Overvoltage

o  Superimposed alternating voltage

o  Slow decrease and increase of supply voltage

o   Defective Regulation (Full-Fielded Alternator) and Jump Start

o   Reverse Supply Voltage

Electrical System Compatibility

o  Immunity to Short Circuits, short-circuit endurance

o  Supply Voltage Input and Load Output Lines

o  I/O Signal Lines

o  Immunity to Potential Differences Between Supplies

o  Immunity to Ground Voltage Offset CI 250 FMC1278 (2 KHz to 100 KHz)

o   Open Circuit

o  Motor Stall

o  Resistance to Overload

o   Insulation Resistance

o   Breakdown/Withstand Voltage

o  Immunity to leakage resistance

o  Immunity to high series resistance

o  Supply Switch Deactivation (FCA)

o  Parasitic Current Measurement

o  FMC ELCOMP Testing

WPT Fine Positioning Architecture

3. February 2016 07:46 by Christian in
This is an implementation architecture example for command & control approach including the alig

This is an implementation architecture example for command & control approach including the alignment and pairing procedure using low power excitation (LPE).




PDCC = Primary Device Communication Controller
SDCC = Secondary Device Communication Controller
SECC = Supply Equipment Communication Controller
EVCC = Electric Vehicle Communication Controller
WLN = Wireless Local Network
LPE = Low Power Excitation


(S-1) SECC periodically broadcasts beacons. EV is approaching to the SECC area and EVCC receives the beacon
(S-2) EVCC sends a request to the associated SECC. Receiving the request, SECC will find a vehicle entering the SECC area. At this point, the communication is established.
(S-3) EVCC and SECC exchange each status.
(S-4) EVCC and SECC exchange each compatibility information.



References: IEC 61980-2

EV Electronic Components Certification Standards

7. October 2015 06:39 by Christian in
CISPR 25 - Radio Disturbance Characteristics for the Protection of Receivers Used on Board Vehicles,

  • CISPR 25 - Radio Disturbance Characteristics for the Protection of Receivers Used on Board Vehicles, Boats, and on Devices
  • IEC 60068-2-11 - Environmental Testing - Salt Mist
  • IEC 60068-2-60 - Flowing Mixed Gas Corrosion Test
  • IEC 61000-4-4 - Electrical Fast Transient/Burst Immunity Test
  • IEC 61000-4-5 - Surge Test
  • IP 6K - Dust Tight
  • IP 9K - High Pressure/Steam Jet Cleaning
  • ISO 7637-2 - Road Vehicles - Electrical Disturbances from Conduction and Coupling - Electrical Transient Conduction Along Supply Lines Only
  • ISO 7637-3 - Road Vehicles - Electrical Disturbances from Conduction and Coupling - Electrical Transient Transmission by Capacitive and Inductive Coupling via Lines Other Than Supply Line
  • ISO 10605 - ESD Immunity
  • ISO 11452-2 - Radiated Immunity
  • ISO 11452-4 - Conducted Immunity
  • UL 2251 - Plugs, Receptacles and Couplers for Electric Vehicles

EV Charging Stations Certification Standards

7. October 2015 06:34 by Christian in
CSA 22.2 No. 107.1-01 - Power SuppliesFCC Part 15.107 - Conducted EmissionsFCC Part 15.109 - Radiate

  • CSA 22.2 No. 107.1-01 - Power Supplies
  • FCC Part 15.107 - Conducted Emissions
  • FCC Part 15.109 - Radiated Emissions
  • FCC Part 15.203 - Antenna Requirements
  • FCC Part 15.207 - Conducted Emissions
  • FCC Part 15.225 (a) - Field Strength of Fundamental Emission
  • FCC Part 15.225 (b,c,d) - Field Strength of Spurious Emissions
  • FCC Part 15.225 (e) - Frequency Stability
  • FCC Part 22 - Public Mobile Services
  • FCC Part 24 - Personal Communication Services
  • ICES-003 - Digital Apparatus
  • NEMA 250-2003 - Enclosures for Electrical Equipment (1000 Volts Maximum)
  • RSS-132 - Cellular Telephones Employing New Technologies Operating in the Bands 824-849 MHz and 869-894 MHz.
  • RSS-133 - 2 GHz Personal Communication Services
  • RSS-210 - License-Exempt Radio Apparatus (All Frequency Bands): Category I Equipment
  • UL2202 - Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging System Equipment
  • UL2231-1 - Personnel Protection Systems for Electric Vehicle (EV) Supply Circuits: General Requirements
  • UL2231-2 - Personnel Protection Systems for Electric Vehicle (EV) Supply Circuits: Particular Requirements for Protection Devices for Use in Charging System
  • UL Subject 2594 - Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

Definitions for Acronym EMC

6. October 2015 05:50 by Christian in
EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility EMC Electric Membership Corporation EMC Easy Media Creator (Roxio)

EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMC Electric Membership Corporation
EMC Easy Media Creator (Roxio)
EMC Enhanced Machine Controller (sourcefourge.net project)
EMC Environmental Modeling Center
EMC Educational Media Center
eMC Electronic Medicines Compendium (UK)
EMC Equilibrium Moisture Content (lumber)
EMC European Music Council (International Music Council)
EMC Encephalomyocarditis
EMC Export Management Company
EMC Emergency Management Coordinator
EMC Excellence in Manufacturing Consortium (Canada)
EMC Encyclopédie Medico-Chirurgicale
EMC Executive Management Committee
EMC Epoxy Molding Compound
EMC Emerging Market Countries
EMC Event Mean Concentration (mean concentration of pollutants in the runoff from a storm event)
EMC Education Management Corporation (New Jersey; est. 1989)
EMC Electromagnetic Capability
EMC Emergency Control
EMC Environmental Management Corporation (O'Fallon, MO)
EMC Energy Management Company
EMC Erasmus Medical Center (Rotterdam, The Netherlands)
EMC Electromagnetic Calorimeter (device to measure electromagnetic energy deposition in high energy/nuclear physics)
EMC Emerging and other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control
EMC Environmental Management Corporation
EMC Essential Mixed Cryoglobulinemia
EMC Éducation Médicale Continue
EMC European Muon Collaboration
EMC Electronic Media Claim(s)
EMC Equity Membership Candidate
EMC Electromagnetic Control
EMC Engineering Management Conference
EMC Equity Market Capitalization
EMC ExpandoMetaClass (programming language; Groovy)
EMC Electro Motive Corporation
EMC Extended Math Coprocessor
EMC Energy Market Consultants (UK) Ltd
EMC Enterprise Management Center
EMC Emirates Motor Company (United Arab Emirates)
EMC Episcopal Missionary Church
EMC Expanded Medical Capacity
EMC European Mining Course
EMC Electromagnetic Casting
EMC Ethyl Methyl Carbonate
EMC Emerging Markets Communications, Inc.
EMC Evangelical Mennonite Conference
EMC Energy Management Controller
EMC Erdenet Mining Corporation (Mongolia)
EMC Electromagnetic Conductivity
EMC Evolved Monkey Combat
EMC Equivalent Magnetic Current
EMC Edema Macular Cistoide
EMC Electromagnetic Channel
EMC Eagle Motor Company
EMC Electromagnetic Charge
EMC Editing Machines Corporation
EMC European Masters Championships
EMC Electrician's Mate Chief (USN Rating)
EMC Electrical Measurements Console
EMC Ensephalomyocarditis
EMC Execution Management Control (TBMCS)
EMC Endometrial Curettage (Ob/Gyn)
EMC Enhanced Super Multi-Coatings
EMC Enterprise Monitoring and Coordination
EMC Engineered Military Circuit
EMC Emergency Message Change
EMC Exercise Management and Control
EMC Exercise Maneuver Control
EMC Electronic Molding Corporation (former electronic component manufacturer in Woonsocket, RI)
EMC Egan Marino Corporation
EMC Econoway Motor Coach, Inc.
EMC Environmental Moisture Content (material property)
EMC Educational and Methodological Council
EMC Enlisted Management Category
EMC Electronic Maintenance Complex
EMC Electronic Material Change
EMC Enraged Mad Customer
EMC Elevator Motor Controller
EMC Educational Methodical Consortium
EMC Equipment Manufacturers Code
EMC Emerging Multi-National Carriers
EMC Electro-Mechanical Controller
EMC ElementoMadera.com
EMC Evolution of Math Communication in the Era of Digital Libraries
EMC Exxon Mobil Canada Ltd
EMC Eisenhower Medical Center (Rancho Mirage, CA, founded 1970)
EMC Every Minute Counts (various organizations)
EMC Executive Meeting Center (various locations)
EMC Eight Mile Creek (restaurant; New York, NY)
EMC Electric Mobility Canada (Mississauga, Ontario, Canada)
EMC Educational Media Collection (various schools)
EMC Essential Media Communications (Australia)
EMC Elan Microelectronics Corp.
EMC Event Management Center (various organizations)
EMC Everything Must Change
EMC Euro Mobilfunk Center (German mobile goods)
EMC Executive Management Consulting (various locations)

ISO 6469-3:2014 - EV Protection of persons against electric shock - Isolation Resistance Measurements

4. October 2015 12:31 by Christian in
ISO 6469-3 Voltage Classes Voltage Class Maximum Working Voltage


ISO 6469-3 Voltage Classes

Voltage Class

Maximum Working Voltage

V (d.c.)

V(a.c.) RMS

A

0<U<=60

0<U<=30

B

60<U<=1500

30<U<=1000

The values 60 V d.c./30 V a.c. (rms) are selected taking into account humid weather conditions




Isolation resistance measurements for voltage class B electric circuits

Prior to the measurement, the device under test (DUT) shall be subjected to a preconditioning period of at least 8 h at (5+/- 2) °C, followed by a conditioning period of 8 h at a temperature of (23+/- 5) °C, a humidity of 90 (+10%, -5%), and an atmospheric pressure of between 86 kPa and 106 kPa.

Alternative preconditioning and conditioning parameters may be selected provided transition across the dew point occurs shortly after the beginning of the conditioning period. The isolation resistance shall be measured during the conditioning period at a rate from which the lowest value can be determined.

 

Isolation resistance measurements of the balance of electric power systems

The test voltage shall be a d.c. voltage of at least the maximum working voltage of the voltage class B power system and be applied for a time long enough to obtain stable reading. If the system has several voltage ranges (e.g. because of boost converter) in conductively connected circuit and some of the components cannot withstand the maximum working voltage of the entire circuit, the isolation resistances of components can be measured separately by applying their own maximum working voltages after those components are disconnected.

 

The following test procedure combines the measurement of the isolation resistance of the live parts of the voltage class B balance of electric power systems against the vehicle electric chassis and against the live parts of the voltage class A balance of auxiliary electric systems.

  • Traction batteries shall be disconnected at their terminals from the power system.
  •  Electric power sources of the voltage class B power systems other than the traction batteries (fuel cell stacks, capacitors) may be disconnected at their terminals from the power system; if they remain connected, power generation shall be deactivated. 
  • Barriers and enclosures shall be included unless evaluations prove otherwise.
  • All live parts of the balance of electric power systems (voltage class B) shall be connected to each other.
  • All exposed conductive parts of the balance of electric power system shall be connected to the electric chassis.
  •  Batteries of the auxiliary electric systems (voltage class A) shall be disconnected at their terminals from the auxiliary circuits.
  •  All live parts of the balance of auxiliary electric systems (voltage class A) shall be connected to the electric chassis.

Then the test voltage shall be applied between the connected live parts of the voltage class B balance of electric power systems and the electric chassis. 

The measurements shall be performed using suitable instruments that can apply d.c. voltage (e.g. megohmmeter, provided they deliver the required test voltage). Alternatively the isolation resistance may be measured using the test procedure for the measurement of the RESS as given in ISO 6469-1 with the balance of electric power system connected to an external power source.

 Isolation resistance measurement of the voltage class B electric power sources

The measurement of the isolation resistance of an RESS, if any, shall be in accordance with ISO 6469-1. The measurement of the isolation resistance of a fuel cell stack, if any, shall be in accordance with ISO 6469-1 with the fuel cell stack in operation.

Alternatively for the measurement of the isolation resistance of a fuel cell stack, the entire mechanical structure of the fuel cell system (including the cooling system with its cooling medium) shall be considered.

Prior to the measurement, stop power generation after operation at maximum output according to the manufacturer's specification. The voltage across the fuel-cell stack power terminals shall be discharged. All cables shall be disconnected from the fuel-cell stack power terminals, and all other cables from other electric terminals of the fuel-cell stack. All cooling pipes, fuel pipes, and air pipes shall remain connected. The applied test voltage shall be at least the maximum open circuit voltage of the fuel cell stack. Apart from these specific conditions, the procedure shall be performed as given in Isolation resistance measurements of the balance of electric power systems.

 Isolation resistance measurement of entire voltage class B electric circuits

The isolation resistance of entire conductively connected voltage class B electric circuits may be measured using the test procedure for the measurement of the RESS given in ISO 6469-1 with the balance of electric power system connected to the voltage class B power sources.

Alternatively, the isolation resistance of entire conductively connected voltage class B electric circuits may be measured using an isolation resistance monitoring system, if installed on the vehicle, provided that its accuracy is sufficiently high.

In case electric or electronic switches exist in the circuit (e. g. transistors in power electronics), these switches shall be activated. If these switches cannot be activated, the relevant part of the circuit may be measured separately in accordance Isolation resistance measurements of the balance of electric power systems.

Instead of being measured, the isolation resistance of the entire conductively connected circuit may be calculated using the measured resistances of the power sources and the balance of electric power system.


Christian Rosu

Electric Vehicle International Safety Standards

4. October 2015 10:40 by Christian in
&amp;nbsp; Number &amp;nbsp; &amp;nbsp; Year &amp;nbsp; &amp;nbsp; Title &amp;nbsp;


Standard

Release

Title

ISO 6469-1

2009

Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Safety specifications -- Part 1: On-board rechargeable energy storage system

ISO 6469-2

2009

Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Safety specifications -- Part 2: Vehicle operational safety means and protection against failures

ISO 6469-3

2011

Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Safety specifications -- Part 3: Protection of persons against electric shock

ISO 6469-4

draft

Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Safety specifications -- Part 4: Post crash electrical safety

ISO TR 8713

2012

Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Vocabulary

ISO 17409

draft

Electrically propelled road vehicles — Connection to an external electric power supply — Safety specifications

ISO/IEC PAS 16898

2012

Electrically propelled road vehicles. Dimensions and designation of secondary lithium-ion cells

ISO/IEC 15118-1

draft

Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid communication interface -- Part 1: General information and use-case definition

ISO/IEC 15118-2

draft

Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid communication interface -- Part 2: Network and application protocol requirements

ISO/IEC 15118-3

draft

Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid Communication Interface -- Part 3: Physical and data link layer requirements

ISO/IEC 15118-4

draft

Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid communication interface -- Part 4: Network and application protocol conformance test

ISO/IEC 15118-5

draft

Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid communication interface -- Part 5: Physical layer and data link layer conformance test

ISO 26262

2011

Road vehicles -- Functional safety

ISO 6722-1

DIS

2011

Road vehicles – 60 V and 600 V single-core cables – Part 1: Dimensions, test methods and requirements for copper conductor cables

ISO 6722-2

CD

2011

Road vehicles – 60 V and 600 V single-core cables – Part 2: Dimensions test methods and requirements for aluminium conductor cables

ISO 12405-1

2011

Electrically propelled road vehicles Test specification for lithium-ion traction battery packs and systems

Part 1: High-power applications

ISO 12405-2

2012

Electrically propelled road vehicles Test specification for lithium-ion traction battery packs and systems

Part 2: High-energy applications

ISO 12405-3

draft

Electrically propelled road vehicles Test specification for lithium-ion battery packs and systems Part 3: Safety performance requirements

ISO 23273-1

2006

Fuel cell road vehicles -- Safety specifications -- Part 1: Vehicle functional safety

ISO 23273-3

2006

Fuel cell road vehicles -- Safety specifications -- Part 3: Protection of persons against electric shock

IEC 60529

2001

Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)

IEC 61851-1

2010

Electric vehicle conductive charging system - Part 1: General requirements Remark: Standard is under review

IEC 61851-21

2001

Electric vehicle conductive charging system - Part 21: Electric vehicle requirements for conductive connection to an a.c./d.c. supply Remark: Standard is under review and will change into an EMC  standard, the relevant requirements for electrical safety move to ISO 17409

IEC 61851-21-1

draft

Electric vehicle conductive charging system - Part 21-1 Electric vehicle onboard charger EMC requirements for conductive connection to a.c./d.c. supply

IEC 61851-24

draft

Electric vehicles conductive charging system - Part 24: Control communication protocol between off-board d.c. charger and electric vehicle

IEC 61980-1

 

1CD

Electric vehicle wireless power transfer systems (WPT) – Part 1: General requirements

IEC 62196-1

 

2011

Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets - Conductive charging of electric vehicles - Part 1: General requirements

IEC 62196-2

 

2011

Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets - Conductive charging of electric vehicles - Part 2: Dimensional compatibility and interchangeability requirements for a.c. pin and contact-tube accessories

IEC 62196-3

 

draft

Plugs, socket-outlets, and vehicle couplers - conductive charging of electric vehicles - Part 3: Dimensional compatibility and interchangeability requirements for dedicated d.c. and combined a.c./d.c. pin and contact-tube vehicle couplers

IEC 62485-3

2010

Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations - Part 3: Traction batteries

IEC 62660-2

2010

Secondary lithium-ion cells for the propulsion of electric road vehicles – Part 2: Reliability and abuse testing

IEC 62660-3

PNW

Secondary lithium-ion cells for the propulsion of electric road vehicles – Part 3: Safety requirements

SAE J1766

2005

Recommended Practice for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Systems Crash Integrity Testing

Remark: Standard is under review

SAE J1772

2012

Electric Vehicle and Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler

SAE J1797

2008

Recommended Practice for Packaging of Electric Vehicle Battery Modules

SAE J2289

2008

Electric-Drive Battery Pack System: Functional Guidelines

SAE J2578

2009

Recommended Practice for General Fuel Cell Vehicle Safety

SAE J2929

2010

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Propulsion Battery System Safety Standard –

Lithium-based Rechargeable Cells

SAE J2464

2009

 Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) Safety and Abuse Testing

SAE J2344

2010

Guidelines for Electric Vehicle Safety

SAE J2380

2009

Vibration Testing of Electric Vehicle Batteries

EN 1987-1

1997

Electrically propelled road vehicles – Specific requirements for safety - Part 1: On board energy storage

EN 1987-2

1997

Electrically propelled road vehicles – Specific requirements for safety - Part 2: Functional safety means and protection against failures

EN 1987-3

1998

Electrically propelled road vehicles – Specific requirements for safety - Part 3: Protection of users against electrical hazards

EN 13447

2001

Electrically propelled road vehicles – Terminology

EN 50272-1

2010

Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations - Part 1: General safety information

EN 50272-3

2002

Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations - Part 3: Traction batteries

 

Christian Rosu

EV Battery-Pack Fire Safety

4. October 2015 07:16 by Christian in
The top 10 causes of car fires:Fuel System Leaks (Gasoline above 257 Celsius will ignite by itself)E

The top 10 causes of car fires:

  1. Fuel System Leaks (Gasoline above 257 Celsius will ignite by itself)
  2. Electrical System Failures (ICE car battery charging cycles can cause explosive hydrogen gas ignited by sparks from faulty/loose wiring)
  3. Spilled Fluids
  4. Overheating Engines
  5. Overheating Catalytic Converters
  6. HEV & EV Batteries
  7. Arson
  8. Car Crashes
  9. Poor Maintenance
  10. Design Flaws

Electric Vehicle Lithium-Ion Battery Packs are made of hundreds to thousands of battery cells that contain flammable liquid electrolytes. These lithium-ion battery cells can generate enough heat to ignite the electrolyte during the thermal runaway process. A short-circuit between cell's two electrodes can result in heat that increases due to chemical reactions until the electrodes burst into flame. Tesla developed a fast cooling system to prevent neighbouring battery-cells from catching fire if such thermal runaway event occurs. However, the cooling system cannot prevent spreading the fire if the battery-pack gets damaged by a large metal object as result of a collision. Among the fire safety solutions adopted by Tesla:

  1. battery-pack protect by a thick hardened aluminum housing
  2. firewall used to isolate the passenger compartment
  3. suspension software set to increase the battery-pack distance to ground at highways speeds
  4. Improved electrode's materials to increase safety of cells
  5. development of non-flammable electrolyte

Controlling Battery Charging

EV and PHEV battery charging is handled through a sophisticated controlled rectifier that takes power from the plug, at 120 or 220 volts alternating current, which is converted to direct current for the battery. The charging voltage needs to be carefully monitored since overcharging can reduce battery life and lead to fire risks. EVs and PHEVs may use in-vehicle systems such as GM’s OnStar and Ford’s Sync to communicate with the charger, allowing the monitoring of the battery state of charge through an Internet-enabled phone. Similarly, the charger may communicate with a smart meter through the Internet, allowing charging to occur when electricity rates are lowest.

Ford Battery-Pack

GM Volt Battery-Pack
 
Nissan Leaf Battery-Pack


EVBatteriesPart1.pdf (4.74 mb)

EVBatteriesPart2.pdf (5.27 mb)

EVBatteriesPart3.pdf (4.29 mb)

EVBatteriesPart4.pdf (5.33 mb)

EVBatteriesPart5.pdf (3.72 mb)

Christian Rosu

MF/EF Exposure Limits (Refereces)

29. September 2015 11:48 by Christian in
ICNIRP GUIDELINES FOR LIMITING EXPOSURE TO TIME‐VARYING ELECTRIC, MAGNETIC AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD

Christian Rosu

EV pros and cons

20. September 2015 14:45 by Christian in
Pros:Fast Start, very quiet and very smooth, no engine vibration, no oil or gas smell.High torque, v

Pros:

  • Fast Start, very quiet and very smooth, no engine vibration, no oil or gas smell.
  • High torque, very silent and responsive acceleration.  Tesla model S can go from zero to 60 mph 3.1 seconds.Electric drivetrains are generally much simpler and more reliable.
  • Home recharging for house owners. Perfect for EV drivers with home solar panels system.
  • Cheaper to operate & maintain (1/3 from gasoline cost, no exhaust systems, don’t need oil changes).
  • No carbon emissions if operated in regions with grid based on hydro, wind, or solar.

Cons:

  • Limited range (80 to 100 miles) and due to lack of charging stations infrastructure exploring new routes or road deviations are risky.
  • The cost of EV batteries is very high ($10,000), their life expectancy is modest (5 years), and their performance drops every year lowering the driving range. EV battery’s power will drop in very cold weather. Replacing & disposal of EV batteries in your garage is not anymore possible.
  • The average cost of EV is about $40,000 in spite of governmental incentives.
  • We still see a considerable number of EV makers recalls.

Christian Rosu