EMC - EV

Electromagnetic Compatibility for Electric Vehicles

New Flyer Electric Bus

The Electric Bus uses lithium ion rechargeable batteries that can store 200 KWh of electricity. The Siemens Electric Drive System converts three-phase AC power to drive the traction motor via DC power from batteries. When braking, the motor acts as a generator to recover energy. The air compressor and air conditioning compressors are using DC power converted to AC. Another converter is used to supply 24-volt DC power to steering, interior fans, lights, and accessories.


EV Wireless Charging (IEC 61980)

IEC61980-1: Electric equipment for the supply of energy to electric road vehicles using an inductive coupling - Part 1: General requirements

IEC 61980-2: Electric vehicle wireless power transfer (WPT) systems –Specific requirements for communication between electric road vehicle (EV) and infrastructure with respect to wireless power transfer (WPT) systems

IEC 61980-3: Electric vehicle wireless power transfer (WPT) systems –Specific requirements for the magnetic field power transfer systems.

Download my review for IEC61980-1 EMC applicable compliance standards:

IEC 61980_EMC_review.pdf (65.96 kb)


IEC 61980-1

TEST

PORT

TEST METHOD

INTERNATIONAL

STANDARD

Test Value

RF Level

CANADA

STANDARD

Immunity Requirements

Performance criteria are described in IEC 61000-6-1 and IEC 61000-6-2

Table 8 – WPT equipment immunity requirement – Environment other than residential

15.1

WPT system

Electrostatic Discharge

(ESD)

IEC 61000-4-2

(2008)

8kV/4kV

Air/Contact

CAN/CSA-IEC 61000-4-2:12

Radiated RF Fields

(80-1000MHz)

IEC 61000-4-3

(2002)

10 V/m

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-3-07 (R2011)

Radiated RF Fields

(1.4-2GHz)

IEC 61000-4-3

3 V/m

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-3-07 (R2011)

Radiated RF Fields (2-

2.7GHz)

IEC 61000-4-3

3 V/m

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-3-07 (R2011)

Magnetic Fields

IEC 61000-4-8

100 A/m

CAN/CSA-IEC 61000-4-8:12

AC Power

input port

(and I/O

signal/control

connected

directly to

mains supply)

Electrical Fast

Transients/Bursts

IEC 61000-4-4

2kV (5/50ns,

100kHz)

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-4-06 (R2011)

Voltage Surges

IEC 61000-4-5

2 KV line-to-line

4 KV line-to-earth

CAN/CSA-IEC 61000-4-5-08 (R2013)

Conducted RF Fields

(0.15-80MHz)

IEC 61000-4-6

10 V (rms)

CAN/CSA-C61000-4-6-09 (R2014)

Voltage dips and

interruptions

IEC 61000-4-11

(<16A)

IEC61000-4-34

(>16A)

30 % reduction for 25 cycles

60 % reduction for 10 cycles

>95 % reduction for 1 cycle

100% reduction for 250 cycles

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-11-05 (R2014)

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-34-06 (R2011)

Table 9 – WPT equipment immunity requirement – residential environment

15.1

WPT system

Electrostatic Discharge

(ESD)

IEC 61000-4-2

8kV/4kV

Air/Contact

CAN/CSA-IEC 61000-4-2:12

Radiated RF Fields

(80-1000MHz)

IEC 61000-4-3

10 V/m

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-3-07 (R2011)

Radiated RF Fields

(1.4-2GHz)

IEC 61000-4-3

3 V/m

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-3-07 (R2011)

Radiated RF Fields (2-

2.7GHz)

IEC 61000-4-3

3 V/m

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-3-07 (R2011)

Magnetic Fields

IEC 61000-4-8

30 A/m

CAN/CSA-IEC 61000-4-8:12

AC Power

input port

(and I/O

signal/control

connected

directly to

mains supply)

Electrical Fast

Transients/Bursts

IEC 61000-4-4

1kV (5/50ns,

100kHz)

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-4-06 (R2011)

Voltage Surges

IEC 61000-4-5

2 KV line-to-line

1 KV line-to-earth

CAN/CSA-IEC 61000-4-5-08 (R2013)

Conducted RF Fields

(0.15-80MHz)

IEC 61000-4-6

3 V (rms)

CAN/CSA-C61000-4-6-09 (R2014)

Voltage dips and

interruptions

IEC 61000-4-11

(<16A)

IEC61000-4-34

(>16A)

30 % reduction for 25 cycles

60 % reduction for 10 cycles

>95 % reduction for 1 cycle

100% reduction for 250 cycles

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-11-05 (R2014)

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-34-06 (R2011)

Disturbance Requirement

Load conditions

15.2.1.1

WPT system

Harmonic emission test

IEC61000-3-2

IEC61000-3-12

The test load shall enable the WPT system to operate between 20 % and 80 % of the rated power

 

flicker test

IEC61000-3-3

IEC61000-3-11

CAN/CSA-C61000-3-3:14

CAN/CSA-C61000-3-11-06 (R2011)

Operating conditions

15.2.1.2

WPT system

modes of operation

·        standby mode

·        active mode for emission

·        active mode for immunity

 

 

Disturbance limits

Limits and test conditions for disturbances in the low frequency (LF) range

Table 10 – Low frequency disturbances

15.2.2.2.2

AC Power

Harmonics

IEC 61000-3-2 (rated current

=< 16A/phase)

IEC 61000-3-12 (rated current

=< 75A/phase)

 

 

15.2.2.2.3

AC Power

Voltage Fluctuations and

Flicker

IEC 61000-3-3

(rated current

=< 16A/phase)

IEC 61000-3-11

(rated current

=< 75A/phase)

 

CAN/CSA-C61000-3-3:14

CAN/CSA-C61000-3-11-06 (R2011)

Limits and test conditions for disturbances in the radio frequency (RF) range

Table 11 – Radio frequency (RF) disturbances

15.2.2.3.2

AC Power

Conducted disturbances

(150kHz-30MHz)

CISPR 11

CISPR 11 Ed. 5 +am1 Table 6 (Class A) or Table 7 (Class B)

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC CISPR 11-04 (R2013)

15.2.2.3.3

Telecommunication

Lines

Conducted disturbances

(150kHz-30MHz)

CISPR 32

CISPR 32

Table A.10 (Class A) or

Table A.11 (Class B)

 

15.2.2.3.4

WPT system

and enclosure port

Radiated

Disturbances

(150kHz-30MHz)

CISPR 11

Table 12

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC CISPR 11-04 (R2013)

15.2.2.3.5

WPT system port

Radiated disturbances

(30MHz-1GHz)

CISPR 11

CISPR 11

Table 9 (Class A) or Table 11 (Class B)

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC CISPR 11-04 (R2013)

 

 

 

 

 

 

WPT equipment immunity requirement

Annex B

B.2

WPT with EV

Radiated RF Field

(20–2 000 MHz)

ISO 11451-2

30 V/m

 

Radio frequency (RF) disturbances

Annex B

B.3

B.4

 

WPT system with EV

Radiated disturbances

(30MHz - 1GHz)

CISPR 12

limit of clause 4

CAN/CSA-CISPR 12-10 (R2014)

Protection from electro-magnetic field

Annex C

C.1.3

 

WPT system with EV

EMF measurement procedure

IEC 61786-1

IEC 61786-2

IEC 62233

 

 

IEC 61786-1: Measurement of DC magnetic, AC magnetic and AC electric fields from 1 Hz to 100 kHz with regard to exposure of human beings - Part 1: Requirements for measuring instruments

IEC 61786-2: Measurement of DC magnetic, AC magnetic and AC electric fields from 1 Hz to 100 kHz with regard to exposure of human beings - Part 2: Basic standard for measurements

IEC 62233: Measurement methods for electromagnetic fields of household appliances and similar apparatus with regard to human exposure


Christian Rosu

EV Domains

Vehicle:

  1. Energy Storage Systems: Power Rating Method; Battery Safety; Battery Testing; Battery Storage, Packaging, Transport, and Handling; Battery Recycling; Crash Testing.
  2. Components: Internal High-Voltage Cables, Wiring, Charging Accessories; Vehicle Diagnostics - Emissions; Audible Warning Systems.
  3. User Interface: Graphical Symbols; Telematics - Driver Distraction; Fuel Efficiency, Emissions, and Labeling

Infrastructure:

  1. Charging Systems: Wireless Charging; Battery Swapping; EV Supply Equipment; Electromagnetic Compatibility; Vehicle as Power Source for non-vehicle applications; Use of Alternative Power Sources.
  2. Communications: Communication Architecture for EV Charging; Communications Requirements for EV Charging Scenarios; Communication & Measurement of EV Energy Consumption; Cyber Security and Data Privacy; Telematics Smart Grid Communications.
  3. Installation: Site Assessment / Power Capacity Assessment; EV Charging Signage and Parking; Charging Station Permitting; Environmental and Use Conditions; Ventilation – Multiple Charging Vehicles; Physical and Security Protection; Accessibility for Persons with Disabilities; Cable Management; EV Supply Equipment Maintenance; Workplace Safety.

Support Devices:

  1. Education & Training: EV Emergency Shut Off; Labeling for Emergency Situations; OEM Emergency Response Guides; Battery Assessment and Safe Discharge; Emergency Evacuations Involving EVs; Workforce Training.



EV Battery Charging Time

The battery capacity is essential in EV autonomy.  Depending on the automotive OEM a fully charged EV battery can provide between 20 KWh (160 km for Nissan) and 85 KWh (480 Km for Tesla).

  • Vehicle's built-in charger: charges up to 43 kW at 230 VAC single-phase / 400 VAC three-phase.
  • External charger: converts AC to DC current and charges up to 120 kW.
Charging Time / 100 Km
Power Supply
Voltage
Max Current
6-8 hours

Single phase - 3.3 kW


230 VAC


16 A


2-3 hours

Three phase - 10 kW


400 VAC


16 A


3-4 hours

Single phase - 7 kW


230 VAC


32 A


1-2 hours

Three phase - 22 kW


400 VAC


32 A


20-30 minutes

Three phase - 43 kW


400 VAC


63 A


20-30 minutes

Direct current - 50 kW


400 - 500 VDC


100 - 125 A


10 minutes

Direct current - 120 kW


300 - 500 VDC


300 - 350 A




Besides charging stations connected to the electrical grid based on fossil-fuel or nuclear power the industry is looking as well into renewable electricity for charging stations like:

  • Solar Power Automotive Recharging Station
  • E-Move Charging Station
  • Wind Powered Charging Station

EV components responsible for electromagnetic emissions

EV components responsible for electromagnetic emissions are the electric motor, the power converter, the power supply, and the lines/cables connecting them. The high speed switching device part of the power converter is the main source of EMI. The impedance of the electric motor that varies as a function of frequency is also an important factor in EMI analysis. Another EMI contributor is the behavior within the high frequency range of the traction battery providing power to the converter. The high-voltage bus (e.g. 900 V) connecting the power converter with the motor and the power supply must be kept very short to limit the emission of noise. The high-voltage system must be insulated and does not use the car body as return conductor like the low-voltage supply system does. The crosstalk between the different lines and the EMI radiated from the high-voltage cables into EV must be addressed.