EMC - EV

Electromagnetic Compatibility for Electric Vehicles

EV Electronic Components Certification Standards

  • CISPR 25 - Radio Disturbance Characteristics for the Protection of Receivers Used on Board Vehicles, Boats, and on Devices
  • IEC 60068-2-11 - Environmental Testing - Salt Mist
  • IEC 60068-2-60 - Flowing Mixed Gas Corrosion Test
  • IEC 61000-4-4 - Electrical Fast Transient/Burst Immunity Test
  • IEC 61000-4-5 - Surge Test
  • IP 6K - Dust Tight
  • IP 9K - High Pressure/Steam Jet Cleaning
  • ISO 7637-2 - Road Vehicles - Electrical Disturbances from Conduction and Coupling - Electrical Transient Conduction Along Supply Lines Only
  • ISO 7637-3 - Road Vehicles - Electrical Disturbances from Conduction and Coupling - Electrical Transient Transmission by Capacitive and Inductive Coupling via Lines Other Than Supply Line
  • ISO 10605 - ESD Immunity
  • ISO 11452-2 - Radiated Immunity
  • ISO 11452-4 - Conducted Immunity
  • UL 2251 - Plugs, Receptacles and Couplers for Electric Vehicles

EV Charging Stations Certification Standards

  • CSA 22.2 No. 107.1-01 - Power Supplies
  • FCC Part 15.107 - Conducted Emissions
  • FCC Part 15.109 - Radiated Emissions
  • FCC Part 15.203 - Antenna Requirements
  • FCC Part 15.207 - Conducted Emissions
  • FCC Part 15.225 (a) - Field Strength of Fundamental Emission
  • FCC Part 15.225 (b,c,d) - Field Strength of Spurious Emissions
  • FCC Part 15.225 (e) - Frequency Stability
  • FCC Part 22 - Public Mobile Services
  • FCC Part 24 - Personal Communication Services
  • ICES-003 - Digital Apparatus
  • NEMA 250-2003 - Enclosures for Electrical Equipment (1000 Volts Maximum)
  • RSS-132 - Cellular Telephones Employing New Technologies Operating in the Bands 824-849 MHz and 869-894 MHz.
  • RSS-133 - 2 GHz Personal Communication Services
  • RSS-210 - License-Exempt Radio Apparatus (All Frequency Bands): Category I Equipment
  • UL2202 - Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging System Equipment
  • UL2231-1 - Personnel Protection Systems for Electric Vehicle (EV) Supply Circuits: General Requirements
  • UL2231-2 - Personnel Protection Systems for Electric Vehicle (EV) Supply Circuits: Particular Requirements for Protection Devices for Use in Charging System
  • UL Subject 2594 - Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

Definitions for Acronym EMC

EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMC Electric Membership Corporation
EMC Easy Media Creator (Roxio)
EMC Enhanced Machine Controller (sourcefourge.net project)
EMC Environmental Modeling Center
EMC Educational Media Center
eMC Electronic Medicines Compendium (UK)
EMC Equilibrium Moisture Content (lumber)
EMC European Music Council (International Music Council)
EMC Encephalomyocarditis
EMC Export Management Company
EMC Emergency Management Coordinator
EMC Excellence in Manufacturing Consortium (Canada)
EMC Encyclopédie Medico-Chirurgicale
EMC Executive Management Committee
EMC Epoxy Molding Compound
EMC Emerging Market Countries
EMC Event Mean Concentration (mean concentration of pollutants in the runoff from a storm event)
EMC Education Management Corporation (New Jersey; est. 1989)
EMC Electromagnetic Capability
EMC Emergency Control
EMC Environmental Management Corporation (O'Fallon, MO)
EMC Energy Management Company
EMC Erasmus Medical Center (Rotterdam, The Netherlands)
EMC Electromagnetic Calorimeter (device to measure electromagnetic energy deposition in high energy/nuclear physics)
EMC Emerging and other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control
EMC Environmental Management Corporation
EMC Essential Mixed Cryoglobulinemia
EMC Éducation Médicale Continue
EMC European Muon Collaboration
EMC Electronic Media Claim(s)
EMC Equity Membership Candidate
EMC Electromagnetic Control
EMC Engineering Management Conference
EMC Equity Market Capitalization
EMC ExpandoMetaClass (programming language; Groovy)
EMC Electro Motive Corporation
EMC Extended Math Coprocessor
EMC Energy Market Consultants (UK) Ltd
EMC Enterprise Management Center
EMC Emirates Motor Company (United Arab Emirates)
EMC Episcopal Missionary Church
EMC Expanded Medical Capacity
EMC European Mining Course
EMC Electromagnetic Casting
EMC Ethyl Methyl Carbonate
EMC Emerging Markets Communications, Inc.
EMC Evangelical Mennonite Conference
EMC Energy Management Controller
EMC Erdenet Mining Corporation (Mongolia)
EMC Electromagnetic Conductivity
EMC Evolved Monkey Combat
EMC Equivalent Magnetic Current
EMC Edema Macular Cistoide
EMC Electromagnetic Channel
EMC Eagle Motor Company
EMC Electromagnetic Charge
EMC Editing Machines Corporation
EMC European Masters Championships
EMC Electrician's Mate Chief (USN Rating)
EMC Electrical Measurements Console
EMC Ensephalomyocarditis
EMC Execution Management Control (TBMCS)
EMC Endometrial Curettage (Ob/Gyn)
EMC Enhanced Super Multi-Coatings
EMC Enterprise Monitoring and Coordination
EMC Engineered Military Circuit
EMC Emergency Message Change
EMC Exercise Management and Control
EMC Exercise Maneuver Control
EMC Electronic Molding Corporation (former electronic component manufacturer in Woonsocket, RI)
EMC Egan Marino Corporation
EMC Econoway Motor Coach, Inc.
EMC Environmental Moisture Content (material property)
EMC Educational and Methodological Council
EMC Enlisted Management Category
EMC Electronic Maintenance Complex
EMC Electronic Material Change
EMC Enraged Mad Customer
EMC Elevator Motor Controller
EMC Educational Methodical Consortium
EMC Equipment Manufacturers Code
EMC Emerging Multi-National Carriers
EMC Electro-Mechanical Controller
EMC ElementoMadera.com
EMC Evolution of Math Communication in the Era of Digital Libraries
EMC Exxon Mobil Canada Ltd
EMC Eisenhower Medical Center (Rancho Mirage, CA, founded 1970)
EMC Every Minute Counts (various organizations)
EMC Executive Meeting Center (various locations)
EMC Eight Mile Creek (restaurant; New York, NY)
EMC Electric Mobility Canada (Mississauga, Ontario, Canada)
EMC Educational Media Collection (various schools)
EMC Essential Media Communications (Australia)
EMC Elan Microelectronics Corp.
EMC Event Management Center (various organizations)
EMC Everything Must Change
EMC Euro Mobilfunk Center (German mobile goods)
EMC Executive Management Consulting (various locations)

ISO 6469-3:2014 - EV Protection of persons against electric shock - Isolation Resistance Measurements


ISO 6469-3 Voltage Classes

Voltage Class

Maximum Working Voltage

V (d.c.)

V(a.c.) RMS

A

0<U<=60

0<U<=30

B

60<U<=1500

30<U<=1000

The values 60 V d.c./30 V a.c. (rms) are selected taking into account humid weather conditions




Isolation resistance measurements for voltage class B electric circuits

Prior to the measurement, the device under test (DUT) shall be subjected to a preconditioning period of at least 8 h at (5+/- 2) °C, followed by a conditioning period of 8 h at a temperature of (23+/- 5) °C, a humidity of 90 (+10%, -5%), and an atmospheric pressure of between 86 kPa and 106 kPa.

Alternative preconditioning and conditioning parameters may be selected provided transition across the dew point occurs shortly after the beginning of the conditioning period. The isolation resistance shall be measured during the conditioning period at a rate from which the lowest value can be determined.

 

Isolation resistance measurements of the balance of electric power systems

The test voltage shall be a d.c. voltage of at least the maximum working voltage of the voltage class B power system and be applied for a time long enough to obtain stable reading. If the system has several voltage ranges (e.g. because of boost converter) in conductively connected circuit and some of the components cannot withstand the maximum working voltage of the entire circuit, the isolation resistances of components can be measured separately by applying their own maximum working voltages after those components are disconnected.

 

The following test procedure combines the measurement of the isolation resistance of the live parts of the voltage class B balance of electric power systems against the vehicle electric chassis and against the live parts of the voltage class A balance of auxiliary electric systems.

  • Traction batteries shall be disconnected at their terminals from the power system.
  •  Electric power sources of the voltage class B power systems other than the traction batteries (fuel cell stacks, capacitors) may be disconnected at their terminals from the power system; if they remain connected, power generation shall be deactivated. 
  • Barriers and enclosures shall be included unless evaluations prove otherwise.
  • All live parts of the balance of electric power systems (voltage class B) shall be connected to each other.
  • All exposed conductive parts of the balance of electric power system shall be connected to the electric chassis.
  •  Batteries of the auxiliary electric systems (voltage class A) shall be disconnected at their terminals from the auxiliary circuits.
  •  All live parts of the balance of auxiliary electric systems (voltage class A) shall be connected to the electric chassis.

Then the test voltage shall be applied between the connected live parts of the voltage class B balance of electric power systems and the electric chassis. 

The measurements shall be performed using suitable instruments that can apply d.c. voltage (e.g. megohmmeter, provided they deliver the required test voltage). Alternatively the isolation resistance may be measured using the test procedure for the measurement of the RESS as given in ISO 6469-1 with the balance of electric power system connected to an external power source.

 Isolation resistance measurement of the voltage class B electric power sources

The measurement of the isolation resistance of an RESS, if any, shall be in accordance with ISO 6469-1. The measurement of the isolation resistance of a fuel cell stack, if any, shall be in accordance with ISO 6469-1 with the fuel cell stack in operation.

Alternatively for the measurement of the isolation resistance of a fuel cell stack, the entire mechanical structure of the fuel cell system (including the cooling system with its cooling medium) shall be considered.

Prior to the measurement, stop power generation after operation at maximum output according to the manufacturer's specification. The voltage across the fuel-cell stack power terminals shall be discharged. All cables shall be disconnected from the fuel-cell stack power terminals, and all other cables from other electric terminals of the fuel-cell stack. All cooling pipes, fuel pipes, and air pipes shall remain connected. The applied test voltage shall be at least the maximum open circuit voltage of the fuel cell stack. Apart from these specific conditions, the procedure shall be performed as given in Isolation resistance measurements of the balance of electric power systems.

 Isolation resistance measurement of entire voltage class B electric circuits

The isolation resistance of entire conductively connected voltage class B electric circuits may be measured using the test procedure for the measurement of the RESS given in ISO 6469-1 with the balance of electric power system connected to the voltage class B power sources.

Alternatively, the isolation resistance of entire conductively connected voltage class B electric circuits may be measured using an isolation resistance monitoring system, if installed on the vehicle, provided that its accuracy is sufficiently high.

In case electric or electronic switches exist in the circuit (e. g. transistors in power electronics), these switches shall be activated. If these switches cannot be activated, the relevant part of the circuit may be measured separately in accordance Isolation resistance measurements of the balance of electric power systems.

Instead of being measured, the isolation resistance of the entire conductively connected circuit may be calculated using the measured resistances of the power sources and the balance of electric power system.


Christian Rosu

Electric Vehicle International Safety Standards


Standard

Release

Title

ISO 6469-1

2009

Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Safety specifications -- Part 1: On-board rechargeable energy storage system

ISO 6469-2

2009

Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Safety specifications -- Part 2: Vehicle operational safety means and protection against failures

ISO 6469-3

2011

Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Safety specifications -- Part 3: Protection of persons against electric shock

ISO 6469-4

draft

Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Safety specifications -- Part 4: Post crash electrical safety

ISO TR 8713

2012

Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Vocabulary

ISO 17409

draft

Electrically propelled road vehicles — Connection to an external electric power supply — Safety specifications

ISO/IEC PAS 16898

2012

Electrically propelled road vehicles. Dimensions and designation of secondary lithium-ion cells

ISO/IEC 15118-1

draft

Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid communication interface -- Part 1: General information and use-case definition

ISO/IEC 15118-2

draft

Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid communication interface -- Part 2: Network and application protocol requirements

ISO/IEC 15118-3

draft

Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid Communication Interface -- Part 3: Physical and data link layer requirements

ISO/IEC 15118-4

draft

Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid communication interface -- Part 4: Network and application protocol conformance test

ISO/IEC 15118-5

draft

Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid communication interface -- Part 5: Physical layer and data link layer conformance test

ISO 26262

2011

Road vehicles -- Functional safety

ISO 6722-1

DIS

2011

Road vehicles – 60 V and 600 V single-core cables – Part 1: Dimensions, test methods and requirements for copper conductor cables

ISO 6722-2

CD

2011

Road vehicles – 60 V and 600 V single-core cables – Part 2: Dimensions test methods and requirements for aluminium conductor cables

ISO 12405-1

2011

Electrically propelled road vehicles Test specification for lithium-ion traction battery packs and systems

Part 1: High-power applications

ISO 12405-2

2012

Electrically propelled road vehicles Test specification for lithium-ion traction battery packs and systems

Part 2: High-energy applications

ISO 12405-3

draft

Electrically propelled road vehicles Test specification for lithium-ion battery packs and systems Part 3: Safety performance requirements

ISO 23273-1

2006

Fuel cell road vehicles -- Safety specifications -- Part 1: Vehicle functional safety

ISO 23273-3

2006

Fuel cell road vehicles -- Safety specifications -- Part 3: Protection of persons against electric shock

IEC 60529

2001

Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)

IEC 61851-1

2010

Electric vehicle conductive charging system - Part 1: General requirements Remark: Standard is under review

IEC 61851-21

2001

Electric vehicle conductive charging system - Part 21: Electric vehicle requirements for conductive connection to an a.c./d.c. supply Remark: Standard is under review and will change into an EMC  standard, the relevant requirements for electrical safety move to ISO 17409

IEC 61851-21-1

draft

Electric vehicle conductive charging system - Part 21-1 Electric vehicle onboard charger EMC requirements for conductive connection to a.c./d.c. supply

IEC 61851-24

draft

Electric vehicles conductive charging system - Part 24: Control communication protocol between off-board d.c. charger and electric vehicle

IEC 61980-1

 

1CD

Electric vehicle wireless power transfer systems (WPT) – Part 1: General requirements

IEC 62196-1

 

2011

Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets - Conductive charging of electric vehicles - Part 1: General requirements

IEC 62196-2

 

2011

Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets - Conductive charging of electric vehicles - Part 2: Dimensional compatibility and interchangeability requirements for a.c. pin and contact-tube accessories

IEC 62196-3

 

draft

Plugs, socket-outlets, and vehicle couplers - conductive charging of electric vehicles - Part 3: Dimensional compatibility and interchangeability requirements for dedicated d.c. and combined a.c./d.c. pin and contact-tube vehicle couplers

IEC 62485-3

2010

Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations - Part 3: Traction batteries

IEC 62660-2

2010

Secondary lithium-ion cells for the propulsion of electric road vehicles – Part 2: Reliability and abuse testing

IEC 62660-3

PNW

Secondary lithium-ion cells for the propulsion of electric road vehicles – Part 3: Safety requirements

SAE J1766

2005

Recommended Practice for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Systems Crash Integrity Testing

Remark: Standard is under review

SAE J1772

2012

Electric Vehicle and Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler

SAE J1797

2008

Recommended Practice for Packaging of Electric Vehicle Battery Modules

SAE J2289

2008

Electric-Drive Battery Pack System: Functional Guidelines

SAE J2578

2009

Recommended Practice for General Fuel Cell Vehicle Safety

SAE J2929

2010

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Propulsion Battery System Safety Standard –

Lithium-based Rechargeable Cells

SAE J2464

2009

 Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) Safety and Abuse Testing

SAE J2344

2010

Guidelines for Electric Vehicle Safety

SAE J2380

2009

Vibration Testing of Electric Vehicle Batteries

EN 1987-1

1997

Electrically propelled road vehicles – Specific requirements for safety - Part 1: On board energy storage

EN 1987-2

1997

Electrically propelled road vehicles – Specific requirements for safety - Part 2: Functional safety means and protection against failures

EN 1987-3

1998

Electrically propelled road vehicles – Specific requirements for safety - Part 3: Protection of users against electrical hazards

EN 13447

2001

Electrically propelled road vehicles – Terminology

EN 50272-1

2010

Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations - Part 1: General safety information

EN 50272-3

2002

Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations - Part 3: Traction batteries

 

Christian Rosu

EV Battery-Pack Fire Safety

The top 10 causes of car fires:

  1. Fuel System Leaks (Gasoline above 257 Celsius will ignite by itself)
  2. Electrical System Failures (ICE car battery charging cycles can cause explosive hydrogen gas ignited by sparks from faulty/loose wiring)
  3. Spilled Fluids
  4. Overheating Engines
  5. Overheating Catalytic Converters
  6. HEV & EV Batteries
  7. Arson
  8. Car Crashes
  9. Poor Maintenance
  10. Design Flaws

Electric Vehicle Lithium-Ion Battery Packs are made of hundreds to thousands of battery cells that contain flammable liquid electrolytes. These lithium-ion battery cells can generate enough heat to ignite the electrolyte during the thermal runaway process. A short-circuit between cell's two electrodes can result in heat that increases due to chemical reactions until the electrodes burst into flame. Tesla developed a fast cooling system to prevent neighbouring battery-cells from catching fire if such thermal runaway event occurs. However, the cooling system cannot prevent spreading the fire if the battery-pack gets damaged by a large metal object as result of a collision. Among the fire safety solutions adopted by Tesla:

  1. battery-pack protect by a thick hardened aluminum housing
  2. firewall used to isolate the passenger compartment
  3. suspension software set to increase the battery-pack distance to ground at highways speeds
  4. Improved electrode's materials to increase safety of cells
  5. development of non-flammable electrolyte

Controlling Battery Charging

EV and PHEV battery charging is handled through a sophisticated controlled rectifier that takes power from the plug, at 120 or 220 volts alternating current, which is converted to direct current for the battery. The charging voltage needs to be carefully monitored since overcharging can reduce battery life and lead to fire risks. EVs and PHEVs may use in-vehicle systems such as GM’s OnStar and Ford’s Sync to communicate with the charger, allowing the monitoring of the battery state of charge through an Internet-enabled phone. Similarly, the charger may communicate with a smart meter through the Internet, allowing charging to occur when electricity rates are lowest.

Ford Battery-Pack

GM Volt Battery-Pack
 
Nissan Leaf Battery-Pack


EVBatteriesPart1.pdf (4.74 mb)

EVBatteriesPart2.pdf (5.27 mb)

EVBatteriesPart3.pdf (4.29 mb)

EVBatteriesPart4.pdf (5.33 mb)

EVBatteriesPart5.pdf (3.72 mb)

Christian Rosu

MF/EF Exposure Limits (Refereces)

Christian Rosu

EV pros and cons

Pros:

  • Fast Start, very quiet and very smooth, no engine vibration, no oil or gas smell.
  • High torque, very silent and responsive acceleration.  Tesla model S can go from zero to 60 mph 3.1 seconds. Electric drivetrains are generally much simpler and more reliable.
  • Home recharging for house owners. Perfect for EV drivers with home solar panels system.
  • Cheaper to operate & maintain (1/3 from gasoline cost, no exhaust systems, don’t need oil changes).
  • No carbon emissions if operated in regions with grid based on hydro, wind, or solar.

Cons:

  • Limited range (80 to 100 miles) and due to lack of charging stations infrastructure exploring new routes or road deviations are risky.
  • The cost of EV batteries is very high ($10,000), their life expectancy is modest (5 years), and their performance drops every year lowering the driving range. EV battery’s power will drop in very cold weather. Replacing & disposal of EV batteries in your garage is not anymore possible.
  • The average cost of EV is about $40,000 in spite of governmental incentives.
  • We still see a considerable number of EV makers recalls.

Christian Rosu

Switching to an electric car turns the environemnet green only in certain countries

The carbon emissions from electricity generation are measured in tones of CO2 emitted per gigawatt hour of electricity produced.

  • tCO2e/GWh = 0 for hydroelectric, nuclear and renewable energy
  • tCO2e/GWh = 500 to 600 for natural gas power plants
  • tCO2e/GWh = 1000 for coal-fired power plants

In countries that generate much of their electricity by burning coal charging EV's battery will significantly boosts carbon emissions. Even in Canadian provinces Alberta, Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia, electric cars generate more carbon pollution over their lifetimes than gas-powered cars. To really contribute to a greener environment you have to buy rather an HEV than EV. Sources


Christian Rosu

LISN (Line Impedance Stabilization Network) or AN (Artificial Network)

Purpose of the LISN:
1. Provide well defined RF impedance to the DUT.
2. The 1μF & 50μH filter isolates the noise that is put on the power lines from the DUT from feeding back to the power supply.
3. Provide a low impedance path for the noise to be measured at the output port of the LISN coupling the interference voltage generated by DUT via 0.1μF to the analyzer or receiver.

The role of the LISN is to isolate the DM current and CM current from the power supply, and to minimize the impact of the CM current by returning it to its sources. The wire harness inductance for large systems (aircraft) is 50μH whereas for small systems (automotive) is 5μH. However, the LISN selection criteria should be based on the frequencies of the measurements required.

     

Types of LISN

  1. V-LISN: Unsymmetrical emissions (line-to-ground)
  2. Delta-LISN: Symmetric emissions (line-to-line)
  3. T-LISN: Asymmetric emissions (mid point line-to-line)

 

There are two types of V-LISN with different impedances.

  • 5 µH inductance (CISPR 16-1-2, CISPR 25, ISO 7637, SAE J1113-41, DO160) are normally used to measure equipment for vehicles, boats and aircrafts connected to on-boards mains with DC or 400 Hz.
  • 50 µH according to CISPR 16-1-2, MIL STD 461 and ANSI C63.4 is intended to operate at mains frequencies of 50 Hz or 60 Hz.

The T-LISN measures the asymmetric disturbance voltage (common mode voltage) and provides it to an EMI Receiver. It is normally used for measuring telecommunication and data transmission equipment connected to symmetrical lines as e.g. twisted pairs.

CISPR-25 (Ed 3.0)
A network inserted in the supply lead or signal/load lead of apparatus to be tested which provides, in a given frequency range, a specified load impedance for the measurement of disturbance voltages and which may isolate the apparatus from the supply or signal sources/loads in that frequency range.
CISPR-25 (Ed 3.0) & ISO-11452-2:2004 & ISO-11452-4
The AN impedance ZPB (tolerance ± 20 %) in the measurement frequency range of 0.1 MHz to 100 MHz it is measured between the terminals P and B with a 50 Ω load on the measurement port and with terminals A and B short-circuited.

  

The 1μF capacitor is populated in CISPR-25 LISN; R=1Kohm.


ISO 7637-2:2011 & ISO-11452-2:2004 & ISO 7637-2:2004
The artificial network is used as a reference standard in the laboratory in place of the impedance of the vehicle wiring harness in order to determine the behavior of electrical/electronic devices.
ISO 7637-2:2011 & ISO 7637-2:2004
The resulting values of impedance ZPB, measured between the terminals P and B while terminals A and B are short-circuited, are given in figure below as a function of frequency assuming ideal electric components. In reality, the impedance of an artificial network shall not deviate more than 10 % from the given curve.

  

No 1μF populated in ISO 7637-2 LISN; R =50 ohm, C is function of voltage.


Sample setup: CISPR-25 require separate LISN for B+ and GND lines.

Christian Rosu