EMC FLEX BLOG A site dedicated to Automotive EMC Testing for Electronic Modules

Electric Vehicle International Safety Standards

4. October 2015 10:40 by Christian in
  Number     Year     Title  


Standard

Release

Title

ISO 6469-1

2009

Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Safety specifications -- Part 1: On-board rechargeable energy storage system

ISO 6469-2

2009

Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Safety specifications -- Part 2: Vehicle operational safety means and protection against failures

ISO 6469-3

2011

Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Safety specifications -- Part 3: Protection of persons against electric shock

ISO 6469-4

draft

Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Safety specifications -- Part 4: Post crash electrical safety

ISO TR 8713

2012

Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Vocabulary

ISO 17409

draft

Electrically propelled road vehicles — Connection to an external electric power supply — Safety specifications

ISO/IEC PAS 16898

2012

Electrically propelled road vehicles. Dimensions and designation of secondary lithium-ion cells

ISO/IEC 15118-1

draft

Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid communication interface -- Part 1: General information and use-case definition

ISO/IEC 15118-2

draft

Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid communication interface -- Part 2: Network and application protocol requirements

ISO/IEC 15118-3

draft

Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid Communication Interface -- Part 3: Physical and data link layer requirements

ISO/IEC 15118-4

draft

Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid communication interface -- Part 4: Network and application protocol conformance test

ISO/IEC 15118-5

draft

Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid communication interface -- Part 5: Physical layer and data link layer conformance test

ISO 26262

2011

Road vehicles -- Functional safety

ISO 6722-1

DIS

2011

Road vehicles – 60 V and 600 V single-core cables – Part 1: Dimensions, test methods and requirements for copper conductor cables

ISO 6722-2

CD

2011

Road vehicles – 60 V and 600 V single-core cables – Part 2: Dimensions test methods and requirements for aluminium conductor cables

ISO 12405-1

2011

Electrically propelled road vehicles Test specification for lithium-ion traction battery packs and systems

Part 1: High-power applications

ISO 12405-2

2012

Electrically propelled road vehicles Test specification for lithium-ion traction battery packs and systems

Part 2: High-energy applications

ISO 12405-3

draft

Electrically propelled road vehicles Test specification for lithium-ion battery packs and systems Part 3: Safety performance requirements

ISO 23273-1

2006

Fuel cell road vehicles -- Safety specifications -- Part 1: Vehicle functional safety

ISO 23273-3

2006

Fuel cell road vehicles -- Safety specifications -- Part 3: Protection of persons against electric shock

IEC 60529

2001

Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)

IEC 61851-1

2010

Electric vehicle conductive charging system - Part 1: General requirements Remark: Standard is under review

IEC 61851-21

2001

Electric vehicle conductive charging system - Part 21: Electric vehicle requirements for conductive connection to an a.c./d.c. supply Remark: Standard is under review and will change into an EMC  standard, the relevant requirements for electrical safety move to ISO 17409

IEC 61851-21-1

draft

Electric vehicle conductive charging system - Part 21-1 Electric vehicle onboard charger EMC requirements for conductive connection to a.c./d.c. supply

IEC 61851-24

draft

Electric vehicles conductive charging system - Part 24: Control communication protocol between off-board d.c. charger and electric vehicle

IEC 61980-1

 

1CD

Electric vehicle wireless power transfer systems (WPT) – Part 1: General requirements

IEC 62196-1

 

2011

Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets - Conductive charging of electric vehicles - Part 1: General requirements

IEC 62196-2

 

2011

Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets - Conductive charging of electric vehicles - Part 2: Dimensional compatibility and interchangeability requirements for a.c. pin and contact-tube accessories

IEC 62196-3

 

draft

Plugs, socket-outlets, and vehicle couplers - conductive charging of electric vehicles - Part 3: Dimensional compatibility and interchangeability requirements for dedicated d.c. and combined a.c./d.c. pin and contact-tube vehicle couplers

IEC 62485-3

2010

Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations - Part 3: Traction batteries

IEC 62660-2

2010

Secondary lithium-ion cells for the propulsion of electric road vehicles – Part 2: Reliability and abuse testing

IEC 62660-3

PNW

Secondary lithium-ion cells for the propulsion of electric road vehicles – Part 3: Safety requirements

SAE J1766

2005

Recommended Practice for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Systems Crash Integrity Testing

Remark: Standard is under review

SAE J1772

2012

Electric Vehicle and Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler

SAE J1797

2008

Recommended Practice for Packaging of Electric Vehicle Battery Modules

SAE J2289

2008

Electric-Drive Battery Pack System: Functional Guidelines

SAE J2578

2009

Recommended Practice for General Fuel Cell Vehicle Safety

SAE J2929

2010

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Propulsion Battery System Safety Standard –

Lithium-based Rechargeable Cells

SAE J2464

2009

 Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) Safety and Abuse Testing

SAE J2344

2010

Guidelines for Electric Vehicle Safety

SAE J2380

2009

Vibration Testing of Electric Vehicle Batteries

EN 1987-1

1997

Electrically propelled road vehicles – Specific requirements for safety - Part 1: On board energy storage

EN 1987-2

1997

Electrically propelled road vehicles – Specific requirements for safety - Part 2: Functional safety means and protection against failures

EN 1987-3

1998

Electrically propelled road vehicles – Specific requirements for safety - Part 3: Protection of users against electrical hazards

EN 13447

2001

Electrically propelled road vehicles – Terminology

EN 50272-1

2010

Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations - Part 1: General safety information

EN 50272-3

2002

Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations - Part 3: Traction batteries

 

Christian Rosu

EV Battery-Pack Fire Safety

4. October 2015 07:16 by Christian in
The top 10 causes of car fires:Fuel System Leaks (Gasoline above 257 Celsius will ignite by itself)E

The top 10 causes of car fires:

  1. Fuel System Leaks (Gasoline above 257 Celsius will ignite by itself)
  2. Electrical System Failures (ICE car battery charging cycles can cause explosive hydrogen gas ignited by sparks from faulty/loose wiring)
  3. Spilled Fluids
  4. Overheating Engines
  5. Overheating Catalytic Converters
  6. HEV & EV Batteries
  7. Arson
  8. Car Crashes
  9. Poor Maintenance
  10. Design Flaws

Electric Vehicle Lithium-Ion Battery Packs are made of hundreds to thousands of battery cells that contain flammable liquid electrolytes. These lithium-ion battery cells can generate enough heat to ignite the electrolyte during the thermal runaway process. A short-circuit between cell's two electrodes can result in heat that increases due to chemical reactions until the electrodes burst into flame. Tesla developed a fast cooling system to prevent neighbouring battery-cells from catching fire if such thermal runaway event occurs. However, the cooling system cannot prevent spreading the fire if the battery-pack gets damaged by a large metal object as result of a collision. Among the fire safety solutions adopted by Tesla:

  1. battery-pack protect by a thick hardened aluminum housing
  2. firewall used to isolate the passenger compartment
  3. suspension software set to increase the battery-pack distance to ground at highways speeds
  4. Improved electrode's materials to increase safety of cells
  5. development of non-flammable electrolyte

Controlling Battery Charging

EV and PHEV battery charging is handled through a sophisticated controlled rectifier that takes power from the plug, at 120 or 220 volts alternating current, which is converted to direct current for the battery. The charging voltage needs to be carefully monitored since overcharging can reduce battery life and lead to fire risks. EVs and PHEVs may use in-vehicle systems such as GM’s OnStar and Ford’s Sync to communicate with the charger, allowing the monitoring of the battery state of charge through an Internet-enabled phone. Similarly, the charger may communicate with a smart meter through the Internet, allowing charging to occur when electricity rates are lowest.

Ford Battery-Pack

GM Volt Battery-Pack
 
Nissan Leaf Battery-Pack


EVBatteriesPart1.pdf (4.74 mb)

EVBatteriesPart2.pdf (5.27 mb)

EVBatteriesPart3.pdf (4.29 mb)

EVBatteriesPart4.pdf (5.33 mb)

EVBatteriesPart5.pdf (3.72 mb)

Christian Rosu

MF/EF Exposure Limits (Refereces)

29. September 2015 11:48 by Christian in
ICNIRP GUIDELINES FOR LIMITING EXPOSURE TO TIME‐VARYING ELECTRIC, MAGNETIC AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD

Christian Rosu

EV pros and cons

20. September 2015 14:45 by Christian in
Pros:Fast Start, very quiet and very smooth, no engine vibration, no oil or gas smell.High torque, v

Pros:

  • Fast Start, very quiet and very smooth, no engine vibration, no oil or gas smell.
  • High torque, very silent and responsive acceleration.  Tesla model S can go from zero to 60 mph 3.1 seconds.Electric drivetrains are generally much simpler and more reliable.
  • Home recharging for house owners. Perfect for EV drivers with home solar panels system.
  • Cheaper to operate & maintain (1/3 from gasoline cost, no exhaust systems, don’t need oil changes).
  • No carbon emissions if operated in regions with grid based on hydro, wind, or solar.

Cons:

  • Limited range (80 to 100 miles) and due to lack of charging stations infrastructure exploring new routes or road deviations are risky.
  • The cost of EV batteries is very high ($10,000), their life expectancy is modest (5 years), and their performance drops every year lowering the driving range. EV battery’s power will drop in very cold weather. Replacing & disposal of EV batteries in your garage is not anymore possible.
  • The average cost of EV is about $40,000 in spite of governmental incentives.
  • We still see a considerable number of EV makers recalls.

Christian Rosu

Switching to an electric car turns the environemnet green only in certain countries

17. September 2015 09:31 by Christian in
The carbon emissions from electricity generation are measured in tones of CO2 emitted per gigawatt h

The carbon emissions from electricity generation are measured in tones of CO2 emitted per gigawatt hour of electricity produced.

  • tCO2e/GWh = 0 for hydroelectric, nuclear and renewable energy
  • tCO2e/GWh = 500 to 600 for natural gas power plants
  • tCO2e/GWh = 1000 for coal-fired power plants

In countries that generate much of their electricity by burning coal charging EV's battery will significantly boosts carbon emissions. Even in Canadian provinces Alberta, Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia, electric cars generate more carbon pollution over their lifetimes than gas-powered cars. To really contribute to a greener environment you have to buy rather an HEV than EV. Sources


Christian Rosu