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Calibrating Filed Probes for Automotive EMC Standards

24. February 2020 09:31 by Christian in EMC/EMI, Test Methods, Calibrations, Uncertainty
IEEE 1309:2013 is the Standard for Calibration of Electromagnetic Field Sensors and Probes (Excludin

The accuracy of RF Field Level during ALSE RF Immunity per ISO 11452-2:2019 Substitution Method relies on the Field Probe calibration factors. An incorrect Field Probe Calibration may result in significant deviations from the field levels called by automotive OEM specs. The Field Probe Calibration Report provides correction factors that are introduced into RF Immunity Test Software (e.g. TILE, NEXIO). Using calibration factors acquired at 15 V/m instead of 300 V/m can force the RF Amplifier output to maximum w/o the Field Probe to report expected Field Level. Moving transmitting antenna 10 inches closer to the Field Probe would allow the probe to report the expected field level, however this level is in fact higher as consequence of using bad correction factors.

RF Field Probe Selection for EMC Testing

Calibration Factors: corrections are provided as dB adjustments & multiplication factors. Maximum field measurement accuracy is achieved when the detailed 3-axis calibration is applied.

     Probe Calibration Certificate

     A) filed level applied via calibration antenna (V/m)

     B) filed level reported by probe (V/m)

     C) calculated multiplier factor

          A = B * C (e.g. 100 V/m = 120 V/m x 0.8333 where 0.8333 is the correction factor)

Sensitivity/Dynamic Range: e.g. (0.5 – 800V/m for 0.5 MHz – 6 GHz)

Linearity: the measure of deviation from an ideal response over the dynamic range of the probe that may vary as a function of the applied field level. (e.g. ±0.5dB 0.5 – 800 V/m).

Overload: the field level where damage can occur to the probe (e.g. 1000 V/m CW).

Isotropic Deviation: the variation of the probe’s response from ideal as it is rotated in the field. The minimal isotropic deviation of spherical probes (±0.5dB 0.5 MHz – 2 GHz).

Response time: the time a probe takes to respond to an applied RF field (e.g. 20 ms).

Sample rate: the rate at which information can be retrieved from the probe (e.g. 50 samples/second). 

Probe Type: refers to the configuration of the probe sensors. 

 

  • An isotropic RF filed measures the total value of the field level and is unaffected by field polarity. This is accomplished by summing measurements from three different sensors placed orthogonal to each other. 
  • Non-isotropic probes measure fields in one polarity at a time for electric field or magnetic field. 

 

IEEE 1309:2013 is the Standard for Calibration of Electromagnetic Field Sensors and Probes (Excluding Antennas) from 9 kHz to 40 GHz. 

The EMC lab must inform the calibrator about critical requirements imposed by automotive specs/standards for proper field calibration factors:

 

  1. The frequency range or center frequencies as delineated by automotive OEM EMC specs (e.g CS.00054, GMW3097, FMC1278).
  2. The filed level for each frequency band (e.g. 80V/m, 100V/m, 200V/m, 300V/m)
  3. Field Probe orientation (all three axes X, Y, Z facing antenna).
  4. Use 1 meter antenna distance to Field Probe. This is not always possible, therefore using a lower distance in far field  (e.g. 30 cm) should be acceptable.
  5. Calibrate the probe using CW with transmitting antenna in both horizontal/vertical polarization.

 

IEEE 1309:2013 A.2.4.3 Field strength: if the probe or sensor linearity is better than ± 0.5 dB, the frequency response calibration of the probe can be performed at any field strength level, but preferably close to the field levels used in the EUT tests. It is also required that the same probe range and/or gain settings as used in the EUT tests are used in the probe calibrations.

IEEE 1309:2013 A.2.4.4 Linearity check for probe or sensor:

For applications needing multiple field strength calibrations, e.g., 3 V/m, 10 V/m, and 18 V/m, the linearity tests shall be performed for each level. Note that for automotive EMC testing the above e.g. translates to levels like 100V/m, 200V/m, 300V/m.

IEEE 1309:2013 A.2.4.5 Probe isotropic response

For isotropic probes using three orthogonal elements, it is recommended that the frequency response and linearity response measurements be performed for each axis individually. Each axis should be aligned with the incident field successively to provide a maximum response. Probe calibration in a single orientation, such as only the orientation used in a UFA calibration, is not recommended, because the transmitting antennas, separation distances, and the end-use environment are typically not the same between the two setups.

Example of RI ALSE Test Configuration
 
 
Example of Field Calibration using Field Probe Type A per FMC1278R3 

 
Example of Field Calibration using Field Probe Type B per FMC1278R3 
 

 
Example of Field Probe Specs (AR FP5082)
 

 
References: IEEE 1309:2013, ISO 11452-2, FMC1278 Rev3, 28401NDS02 [8], AR App Note #44
Christian Rosu, Feb 24, 2020
 

AR_App_Note_44_RF_Field_Probe_Selection.pdf (352.8KB)

Rhode & Schwarz Equipment Calibration Interval:

https://gloris.rohde-schwarz.com/anonymous/en/pages/toplevel/calibration-process.html

Ground Return & Common Impedance Coupling

27. January 2020 09:26 by Christian in EMC/EMI, Load Simulator
Understanding the role of return ground is essential in EMC testing.Christian Rosu, Flexautomotive.n

Understanding the role of return ground is essential in EMC testing.

VISIT OUR NEW EMC LAB BLOG

See Differential Mode vs Common Mode Current

 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 

 

 
 
 
Christian Rosu, Flexautomotive.net,  2020-01-27

CISPR-25 RE per CS.00054:2018

15. October 2019 10:00 by Christian in EMC/EMI, OEM Specs, Test Equipment, Test Methods
CISPR-25 Generic Test Setup for compliance to CS.00054:2018.

CISPR-25 Generic Test Setup for compliance to CS.00054:2018

CS.00054 Radiated Emissions Block Diagram
 
The vertical monopole element is centered at 1m from the center of the 1.7m test harness. Note that 1.5m of the harness is running at 10 cm parallel with ground plane edge. The antenna counterpoise is placed +10/-20 mm vs GP. 
 
CISPR-25 Generic DUT Setup. The DUT is placed @ 20 cm from the edge of GP. The 1.7 m Test Harness is routed 90 degrees towards DUT.
 
The ground plane is connected to chamber's floor to a dedicated Earth Grounding Rod.
 
LISN (700 V DC / 500 A) & Load Simulator side of the test setup. 
DUT's B+ & GND lines are connected to LISN's outputs.
 
THE BICONICAL ANTENNA IN VERTICAL POLARIZATION. 
The antenna is centered on the 1.5m harness running at 10 cm parallel with GP edge.
 
THE BICONICAL ANTENNA IN HORIZONTAL POLARIZATION. 
The antenna is centered on the 1.5m harness running at 10 cm parallel with GP edge.
 
THE LOG PERIODIC ANTENNA IN VERTICAL POLARIZATION. 
The tip of antenna is 1 m away from the center of the test harness.
 
THE LOG PERIODIC ANTENNA IN HORIZONTAL POLARIZATION. 
The tip of antenna is 1 m away from the center of the test harness.
 
Octave Antenna Vertical Polarization with its aperture centered on DUT at 1 m distance from test harness.
 
Octave Antenna Horizontal Polarization with its aperture centered on DUT at 1 m distance from test harness.
 
Horn Antenna Horizontal Polarization with its aperture centered on DUT at 1 m distance from test harness.
 
Horn Antenna Vertical Polarization with its aperture centered on DUT at 1 m distance from test harness.

 

 
3-METER ALSE CHAMBER & Equipment Control Shielded Room.
 

ALSE CHAMBER EARTH GROUNDING ROD.

CISPR-25 RF emissions ambient test pitfalls

25. April 2017 15:48 by Christian in EMC/EMI, EMC TEST PLAN, Standards
CISPR-25 is not very specific in regards to chamber ambient test setup configuration in regards to d

CISPR-25 is not very specific about device under test and support equipment configuration during chamber ambient test. The automotive OEM require the ambient for RE, CE-V, CE-I with support equipment energized. The test laboratories will typically disconnect VBATT line from LISN output. The GND line remains connected to LISN. By doing so is assumed that DUT is not energized. The support equipment remains connected to the input of the LISNs being turned on (energized). The CAN bus is powered but w/o traffic. It is unclear if the load simulator energized it means powered but inactive (standby). By activating PWM pulses as inputs for DUT it may yield unwanted CE-I and RE ambient noise. All these aspects must be clarified in the EMC test plan.

In the sample presented the CE-V ambient noise is well below the 6 dB requirement. However, this type of noise is being captured while DUT's integrated buttons are being pressed and released via a pneumatic system with no electrical connection to DUT or test ground plane. Specifying that DUT must be unpowered may not be enough, the DUT's buttons should not be mechanically activated, nor its inputs subjected to electrical signals.

 
Christian Rosu

Shielding Effectiveness

27. April 2016 01:39 by Christian in EMC/EMI
The generic shielding effectiveness requirement is 40 dB for magnetic field, electric field, and pla

The generic shielding effectiveness requirement is 40 dB for magnetic field, electric field, and plane waves. Depending on the application the frequency range can start from 10 Hz going up to GHz.

To predict shielding effectiveness (SE) of a metal sheet the following factors are summed:  Absorption Loss (A), Reflection Loss (R), re-Reflection Correction Factor (C).  SE = A + R – C (see MIL-HDBK-419A).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Absorption loss depends on material thickness, permeability, electrical conductivity, and the frequency of the incident wave.  It is the same for all electromagnetic waves.

Reflection loss depends on the distance of the EMI source to the material (different for electric, magnetic, and plane waves), material electrical conductivity, and the frequency of the incident wave.

Sources:
Christian Rosu