Electromagnetic Compatibility for Electric Vehicles

Shielding Effectiveness

Shielding Effectiveness S = A + R + B (dB)
   A = Absorption Loss
   R = Reflection Loss
   B = Correction Factor (for multiple reflections in the shield)

Electromagnetic Filed Shielding (Far Field)
Assuming an electromagnetic wave that propagates perpendicular to the shield surface:

Absorption Loss A = 131.4 * t * SQRT (f * relative permeability * conductivity) dB
   • increase due to the skin effect
   • is the primary contributor to the shielding effectiveness at high frequencies

   t = thicknes of the shield in meters
   f = frequency

Reflection Loss R = 168 - (10 * log (relative permeability * f / conductivity)) dB
   • decrease with the frequency
   • is the primary contributor to the shielding effectiveness at low frequencies

• For sources with high voltages the dominant near-field is an electrical field.
• For sources with high currents the dominant near-field is a magnetic field.

Electric Field Shielding (Near Field)
Reflection Loss R = 322 - (10 * log (conductivity / relative permeability * f^3 * r^2))
   r = distance between the source and the shield
   electric near-field reflection loss =< far-field reflection loss

Magnetic Field Shielding (Near Field)
Reflection Loss R = 14.57 - (10 * log (conductivity * f * r^2 / relative permeability))
• reflection loss decreases for decreasing frequencies, and is lower than the reflection loss for the plane wave reflection.
• reflection losses are usually negligible for lower frequencies and absorption losses are small for low frequencies too.

Magnetic Field (MF) shielding methods:
• Deviation of the magnetic flux with high permeability material.
• The shorted tuned method, which consists in the generation of opposing fluxes that cancel the magnetic field in the area of interest.

Using magnetic material as shield:
• The permeability of a magnetic material decreases by increasing the frequency (depends only on the material).
• The permeability of a magnetic material decreases by increasing the MF strength (depends on the material and the section of the magnetic circuit).

The steel is a better magnetic field shield at low frequencies than good conductors like aluminium or copper. However at high frequencies, good conductors provide better magnetic shielding.

Shielding Effectiveness

  • For non-magnetic material increases with the frequency, therefore, it is recommended to calculate the attenuation for the lowest frequency of interest.
  • For magnetic materials may reduce due to the decrease of the permeability with the frequency.

Comments (1) -

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