EMC - EV

Electromagnetic Compatibility for Electric Vehicles

EV Wireless Charging (IEC 61980)

IEC61980-1: Electric equipment for the supply of energy to electric road vehicles using an inductive coupling - Part 1: General requirements

IEC 61980-2: Electric vehicle wireless power transfer (WPT) systems –Specific requirements for communication between electric road vehicle (EV) and infrastructure with respect to wireless power transfer (WPT) systems

IEC 61980-3: Electric vehicle wireless power transfer (WPT) systems –Specific requirements for the magnetic field power transfer systems.

Download my review for IEC61980-1 EMC applicable compliance standards:

IEC 61980_EMC_review.pdf (65.96 kb)


IEC 61980-1

TEST

PORT

TEST METHOD

INTERNATIONAL

STANDARD

Test Value

RF Level

CANADA

STANDARD

Immunity Requirements

Performance criteria are described in IEC 61000-6-1 and IEC 61000-6-2

Table 8 – WPT equipment immunity requirement – Environment other than residential

15.1

WPT system

Electrostatic Discharge

(ESD)

IEC 61000-4-2

(2008)

8kV/4kV

Air/Contact

CAN/CSA-IEC 61000-4-2:12

Radiated RF Fields

(80-1000MHz)

IEC 61000-4-3

(2002)

10 V/m

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-3-07 (R2011)

Radiated RF Fields

(1.4-2GHz)

IEC 61000-4-3

3 V/m

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-3-07 (R2011)

Radiated RF Fields (2-

2.7GHz)

IEC 61000-4-3

3 V/m

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-3-07 (R2011)

Magnetic Fields

IEC 61000-4-8

100 A/m

CAN/CSA-IEC 61000-4-8:12

AC Power

input port

(and I/O

signal/control

connected

directly to

mains supply)

Electrical Fast

Transients/Bursts

IEC 61000-4-4

2kV (5/50ns,

100kHz)

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-4-06 (R2011)

Voltage Surges

IEC 61000-4-5

2 KV line-to-line

4 KV line-to-earth

CAN/CSA-IEC 61000-4-5-08 (R2013)

Conducted RF Fields

(0.15-80MHz)

IEC 61000-4-6

10 V (rms)

CAN/CSA-C61000-4-6-09 (R2014)

Voltage dips and

interruptions

IEC 61000-4-11

(<16A)

IEC61000-4-34

(>16A)

30 % reduction for 25 cycles

60 % reduction for 10 cycles

>95 % reduction for 1 cycle

100% reduction for 250 cycles

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-11-05 (R2014)

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-34-06 (R2011)

Table 9 – WPT equipment immunity requirement – residential environment

15.1

WPT system

Electrostatic Discharge

(ESD)

IEC 61000-4-2

8kV/4kV

Air/Contact

CAN/CSA-IEC 61000-4-2:12

Radiated RF Fields

(80-1000MHz)

IEC 61000-4-3

10 V/m

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-3-07 (R2011)

Radiated RF Fields

(1.4-2GHz)

IEC 61000-4-3

3 V/m

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-3-07 (R2011)

Radiated RF Fields (2-

2.7GHz)

IEC 61000-4-3

3 V/m

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-3-07 (R2011)

Magnetic Fields

IEC 61000-4-8

30 A/m

CAN/CSA-IEC 61000-4-8:12

AC Power

input port

(and I/O

signal/control

connected

directly to

mains supply)

Electrical Fast

Transients/Bursts

IEC 61000-4-4

1kV (5/50ns,

100kHz)

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-4-06 (R2011)

Voltage Surges

IEC 61000-4-5

2 KV line-to-line

1 KV line-to-earth

CAN/CSA-IEC 61000-4-5-08 (R2013)

Conducted RF Fields

(0.15-80MHz)

IEC 61000-4-6

3 V (rms)

CAN/CSA-C61000-4-6-09 (R2014)

Voltage dips and

interruptions

IEC 61000-4-11

(<16A)

IEC61000-4-34

(>16A)

30 % reduction for 25 cycles

60 % reduction for 10 cycles

>95 % reduction for 1 cycle

100% reduction for 250 cycles

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-11-05 (R2014)

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC 61000-4-34-06 (R2011)

Disturbance Requirement

Load conditions

15.2.1.1

WPT system

Harmonic emission test

IEC61000-3-2

IEC61000-3-12

The test load shall enable the WPT system to operate between 20 % and 80 % of the rated power

 

flicker test

IEC61000-3-3

IEC61000-3-11

CAN/CSA-C61000-3-3:14

CAN/CSA-C61000-3-11-06 (R2011)

Operating conditions

15.2.1.2

WPT system

modes of operation

·        standby mode

·        active mode for emission

·        active mode for immunity

 

 

Disturbance limits

Limits and test conditions for disturbances in the low frequency (LF) range

Table 10 – Low frequency disturbances

15.2.2.2.2

AC Power

Harmonics

IEC 61000-3-2 (rated current

=< 16A/phase)

IEC 61000-3-12 (rated current

=< 75A/phase)

 

 

15.2.2.2.3

AC Power

Voltage Fluctuations and

Flicker

IEC 61000-3-3

(rated current

=< 16A/phase)

IEC 61000-3-11

(rated current

=< 75A/phase)

 

CAN/CSA-C61000-3-3:14

CAN/CSA-C61000-3-11-06 (R2011)

Limits and test conditions for disturbances in the radio frequency (RF) range

Table 11 – Radio frequency (RF) disturbances

15.2.2.3.2

AC Power

Conducted disturbances

(150kHz-30MHz)

CISPR 11

CISPR 11 Ed. 5 +am1 Table 6 (Class A) or Table 7 (Class B)

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC CISPR 11-04 (R2013)

15.2.2.3.3

Telecommunication

Lines

Conducted disturbances

(150kHz-30MHz)

CISPR 32

CISPR 32

Table A.10 (Class A) or

Table A.11 (Class B)

 

15.2.2.3.4

WPT system

and enclosure port

Radiated

Disturbances

(150kHz-30MHz)

CISPR 11

Table 12

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC CISPR 11-04 (R2013)

15.2.2.3.5

WPT system port

Radiated disturbances

(30MHz-1GHz)

CISPR 11

CISPR 11

Table 9 (Class A) or Table 11 (Class B)

CAN/CSA-CEI/IEC CISPR 11-04 (R2013)

 

 

 

 

 

 

WPT equipment immunity requirement

Annex B

B.2

WPT with EV

Radiated RF Field

(20–2 000 MHz)

ISO 11451-2

30 V/m

 

Radio frequency (RF) disturbances

Annex B

B.3

B.4

 

WPT system with EV

Radiated disturbances

(30MHz - 1GHz)

CISPR 12

limit of clause 4

CAN/CSA-CISPR 12-10 (R2014)

Protection from electro-magnetic field

Annex C

C.1.3

 

WPT system with EV

EMF measurement procedure

IEC 61786-1

IEC 61786-2

IEC 62233

 

 

IEC 61786-1: Measurement of DC magnetic, AC magnetic and AC electric fields from 1 Hz to 100 kHz with regard to exposure of human beings - Part 1: Requirements for measuring instruments

IEC 61786-2: Measurement of DC magnetic, AC magnetic and AC electric fields from 1 Hz to 100 kHz with regard to exposure of human beings - Part 2: Basic standard for measurements

IEC 62233: Measurement methods for electromagnetic fields of household appliances and similar apparatus with regard to human exposure


Christian Rosu

EV Domains

Vehicle:

  1. Energy Storage Systems: Power Rating Method; Battery Safety; Battery Testing; Battery Storage, Packaging, Transport, and Handling; Battery Recycling; Crash Testing.
  2. Components: Internal High-Voltage Cables, Wiring, Charging Accessories; Vehicle Diagnostics - Emissions; Audible Warning Systems.
  3. User Interface: Graphical Symbols; Telematics - Driver Distraction; Fuel Efficiency, Emissions, and Labeling

Infrastructure:

  1. Charging Systems: Wireless Charging; Battery Swapping; EV Supply Equipment; Electromagnetic Compatibility; Vehicle as Power Source for non-vehicle applications; Use of Alternative Power Sources.
  2. Communications: Communication Architecture for EV Charging; Communications Requirements for EV Charging Scenarios; Communication & Measurement of EV Energy Consumption; Cyber Security and Data Privacy; Telematics Smart Grid Communications.
  3. Installation: Site Assessment / Power Capacity Assessment; EV Charging Signage and Parking; Charging Station Permitting; Environmental and Use Conditions; Ventilation – Multiple Charging Vehicles; Physical and Security Protection; Accessibility for Persons with Disabilities; Cable Management; EV Supply Equipment Maintenance; Workplace Safety.

Support Devices:

  1. Education & Training: EV Emergency Shut Off; Labeling for Emergency Situations; OEM Emergency Response Guides; Battery Assessment and Safe Discharge; Emergency Evacuations Involving EVs; Workforce Training.



EV Battery Charging Time

The battery capacity is essential in EV autonomy.  Depending on the automotive OEM a fully charged EV battery can provide between 20 KWh (160 km for Nissan) and 85 KWh (480 Km for Tesla).

  • Vehicle's built-in charger: charges up to 43 kW at 230 VAC single-phase / 400 VAC three-phase.
  • External charger: converts AC to DC current and charges up to 120 kW.
Charging Time / 100 Km
Power Supply
Voltage
Max Current
6-8 hours

Single phase - 3.3 kW


230 VAC


16 A


2-3 hours

Three phase - 10 kW


400 VAC


16 A


3-4 hours

Single phase - 7 kW


230 VAC


32 A


1-2 hours

Three phase - 22 kW


400 VAC


32 A


20-30 minutes

Three phase - 43 kW


400 VAC


63 A


20-30 minutes

Direct current - 50 kW


400 - 500 VDC


100 - 125 A


10 minutes

Direct current - 120 kW


300 - 500 VDC


300 - 350 A




Besides charging stations connected to the electrical grid based on fossil-fuel or nuclear power the industry is looking as well into renewable electricity for charging stations like:

  • Solar Power Automotive Recharging Station
  • E-Move Charging Station
  • Wind Powered Charging Station

EV components responsible for electromagnetic emissions

EV components responsible for electromagnetic emissions are the electric motor, the power converter, the power supply, and the lines/cables connecting them. The high speed switching device part of the power converter is the main source of EMI. The impedance of the electric motor that varies as a function of frequency is also an important factor in EMI analysis. Another EMI contributor is the behavior within the high frequency range of the traction battery providing power to the converter. The high-voltage bus (e.g. 900 V) connecting the power converter with the motor and the power supply must be kept very short to limit the emission of noise. The high-voltage system must be insulated and does not use the car body as return conductor like the low-voltage supply system does. The crosstalk between the different lines and the EMI radiated from the high-voltage cables into EV must be addressed.

EV champion is Norway

Norway is the champion of plug-in vehicle fleet per capita reaching in May 2015 over 50,000 pure EVs and about 4,000 plug-in hybrids using an infrastructure of 6,000 electric recharge stations. Norway government incentives succeeded to make the electric car purchase price competitive with ICE cars. Plug-in EVs are exempted from all non-recurring vehicle fees, 25% VAT on purchase, ferryboat fees, public parking fees, annual road tax, toll payments, and are allowed to use bus lanes. 

In April 2015 YTD EV sales per country in Europe was 8646 in Norway, 5551 in France, and 3461 in Germany. The 2013 population was 5.084 million in Norway, 66.03 million in France, and 80.62 million in Germany.

In Mar 2015 plug-in EVs sold worldwide was 48,062 out of which 23,339 only in US.

In Apr 2015 plug-in EVs sold worldwide was 90,050 out of which 32,443 only in US. The US population in 2014 was 318.9 million. 

US new public charging stations installed in the first quarter of 2015:

1.  California:  436

2.  Florida:  80

3.  Georgia:  67

4.  Washington:  52

5.  Massachusetts:  50

6.  North Carolina:  43

7.  Texas:  40

8.  Ohio:  37

9.  Minnesota:  35

Excluding private stations in the United States the EV drivers have access to 9,639 electric stations and 24,784 charging outlets.

Automotive Electronics - Improving Safety of Driving

Mercedes-Benz developed new technologies to ensure the safety of driving:

  • Helps the driver in guiding the vehicle in its lane and can follow the vehicle in front in slow-moving traffic automatically.
  • Detects pedestrians and initiates autonomous braking to avoid a collision at speeds up to 50 km/h.
  • Detects cross traffic and if required, boost the braking pressure applied by the driver accordingly.
  • Adaptive High-beam Assist
  • Active Blind Spot Assist
  • Active Lane Keeping Assist

Cruise Control Steering Assistant to keep the car centered within the lane limits maintaining also the optimal distance to the vehicle ahead: 

MB1.mp4 (24.85 mb)

Pre-Safe Brake with Pedestrian Recognition: 

MB2.mp4 (22.69 mb)

Cross Traffic Assistant that enhances the braking system preventing collisions:

MB3.mp4 (20.55 mb)

Download and view MP4 files in VLC Media Player

Advantages of driving an Electric Vehicle

The most noticeable difference is driving in a very quiet and comfortable environment. Listening to sophisticated music becomes possible.

The total 5-year cost, including depreciation, taxes and fees, financing, fuel, insurance, maintenance, repairs, and tax credit is lower for electric than plug-in hybrids, hybrids, or ICE (internal combustion engine) cars. The total 5-year cost is not significant anymore if the existent governmental tax brake in place for plug-in hybrids and EVs is removed. However, the EV buying price is significantly higher than for an ICE car.

The technology used to build the existent EV batteries is expected to significantly improve in the next 10 years. So far what is not encouraging the potential buyers is:

  • driving distance range offered by the current battery storing capacity
  • battery degradation (e.g. Nissan guarantees that the Leaf battery will retain at least 70% capacity after 5 years / 60 miles)
  • high battery replacement cost offered by the current technology (e.g. Nissan Leaf $5,500 after trade-in allowance) 

The plug-in charger stations poor infrastructure is probably the main reason in making a decision if the EV has enough driving range. The cost of KW/h may be attractive but there is also a cost of having a charger station in your garage, and most likely you cannot afford a fast-charge station.


While the plug-in charging infrastructure for EVs is being implemented the plug-less WPT (Wireless Power Transfer or Inductive Charging) is also present on the EV market.

The plug-less WPT charging systems are available in both stationary & dynamic configurations: