EMC - EV

Electromagnetic Compatibility for Electric Vehicles

EMC re-validation driven by manufacturing plant or production process changes

Depending on the automotive OEM a re-validation may be mandatory whenever an electronic controller production is moved from one manufacturing plant to another (e.g. Mexico to China). This refer to a situation with unchanged design, parts vendors, and even identical manufacturing process flow.

The EMC/EMI related advantages when using SMT pick and place machines are:

  • lower the resistance and inductance at the connection ensuring fewer unwanted RF signal effects, a better and more predictable high-frequency performance.
  • better EMC performance (lower radiated emissions) due to the smaller radiation loop area (because of the smaller package) and the smaller lead inductance.

However, by using a different type/model of SMT pick and place machine a full EMC/EMI validation of your product might be necessary. The reason for re-validation is that even a small amount of inductance may change the self-resonant frequency of operation significantly, making the capacitor ineffective for optimal or desired performance. A capacitor remains capacitive up to its self-resonant frequency. Above self-resonance, the capacitor starts to appear as an inductor due to lead length and trace inductance. Inductance minimizes the ability of the capacitor to decouple or remove RF energy that exists between power and ground.

The self-resonant frequency of surface mount (SMT) capacitors is always higher, although interconnect inductance may obviate this benefit. Interconnect inductance includes routed traces and the bond wires internal to a component package. Depending on the type of product being designed, as well as on the frequency of operation, a change of inductance in the picohenry range may be too much to tolerate.

SMT 0805 1.0 uF capacitor (lead inductance L = 1 nH) the self-resonance occurs at 5 MHz.
SMT 0805 0.01 uF capacitor (lead inductance L = 1 nH) the self-resonance occurs at 50 MHz.
SMT 0805 100 pF capacitor (lead inductance L = 1 nH) the self-resonance occurs at 503 MHz.

In my EMC laboratory testing experience I've seen such changes in radiated emissions or conducted emissions performance from modules using the same hardware and software design built in different manufacturing plants.

References: Printed Circuit Board Design Techniques for EMC Compliance 2nd Ed. (Mark I. Montrose)

WPT Transfer Power Classess

Magnetic Field WPT Input Power Classes (drawn from the grid)

Class          
MF-WPT1
MF-WPT2
MF-WPT3
MF-WPT4
Power
P =< 3.7
3.7 < P =< 7.7
7.7 < P =< 22
P >

Interoperability is the state of the supply device and the EV enabling wireless power transfer via magnetic field in a safe and efficient manner. Power transfer is allowed to occur only when interoperability is established.

Interoperability Power Classes

 

 Primary Device

 

Secondary

Device

 MF-WPT

 1

 2

 3

 4

 1

 Required

 Desired

 *

 *

 2

 Desired

 Required

 *

 *

 3

 *

 *

 Required

 *

 4

 *

 *

 *

 Required

 * Under Consideration


Fundamental and Operation Frequencies for WPT Charging Stations

The Europeans expect frequency ranges 20-40 kHz, 80-90 kHz, and 119-135 kHz to be reserved for preferred accommodation of fundamental and operation frequencies for “charging stations” for electric vehicles featuring wireless power transfer (WPT). The use of these frequency bands becomes possible via the license exempt conditions granted by Decision 2013/752/EU of the European Commission on harmonization of utilization of radio frequencies for Short Range Devices.

WPT systems and car manufacturers target for these frequency bands is compliance to:

  • Conducted Emissions C1 & C2 limits at LV a.c. mains power ports of power electronic equipment with WPT functionality as specified in IEC TS 62578 Ed. 2.0 (TC 22)
  • Radiated Emissions limits (magnetic field strength at 10 m distance) specified by Decision 2013/752/EU and EN 300 330-1&2 for WPT interface of the inductive power transfer system comprising the charging station and the electric vehicle.

Abbreviations:
CENELEC: European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization, Brussels
CD: Committee Draft; ISO, IEC
CDV: Committee Draft for Vote; IEC
CAB: Conformity Assessment Board; IEC
CASCO: Committee on Conformity Assessment; ISO
DC: Document for Comment; EC
DIN: German Institute for Standardization, Berlin
DIS: Draft International Standard; ISO
DK: German Committee
DKE: German Commission for Electrical, Electronic & Information Technologies of DIN and VDE, Frankfurt am Main
DK-IEC: German Committee of IEC
ETSI - EN 300 330-1 PART 1: TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND TEST METHODS

  • ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY AND RADIO SPECTRUM MATTERS (ERM); 
  • SHORT RANGE DEVICES (SRD);
  • RADIO EQUIPMENT IN THE FREQUENCY RANGE 9 KHZ TO 25 MHZ AND INDUCTIVE LOOP SYSTEMS IN THE FREQUENCY RANGE 9 KHZ TO 30 MHZ;

GA: Gemeinschaftsausschuss (Joint Committee); DIN
IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva
IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York
ISO: International Organization for Standardization, Geneva
JTC: Joint Technical Committee; ISO, IEC
TC: Technical Committee; ISO, IEC, CEN, CENELEC, ETSI
TR: Technical Report; ISO, IEC, CEN, CENELEC
TS: Technical Specification; ISO, IEC, CEN, CENELEC, ETSI
VDE: Association for Electrical, Electronic & Information Technologies, Frankfurt am Main
WG: Working Group; ISO, IEC, CEN, CENELEC

2013/752/EU: Commission Implementing Decision of 11 December 2013 amending Decision 2006/771/EC on harmonisation of the radio spectrum for use by short-range devices and repealing Decision 2005/928/EC (notified under document C(2013) 8776) Text with EEA relevance

DKE / K 353 is responsible for the development of standards for the charging of electric vehicles.  These include interface descriptions and requirements for stations for the AC-charging, DC-charging, wireless charging and battery replacement.

   Working Groups:
   DKE / AK 353.0.6    EMC in the energy supply of electric vehicles
   DKE / AK 353.0.7    Battery change systems
   DKE / AK 353.0.8    User authorization for charging infrastructure
   DKE / GAK 353.0.9   Energy supply of light electric vehicles
   DKE / AK 353.0.6    EMC in the energy supply of electric vehicles
   DKE / GAK 353.0.1   Contactless charging of electric vehicles
   DKE / GAK 353.0.2   DC charging of electric vehicles
   DKE / AK 353.0.3    Communication interface from the vehicle to the power grid (V2G CI)
   DKE / GAK 353.0.4   AC charging of electric vehicles

2015 BMW i3 AM radio is susceptible to RF interferences from electric motors

The 2015 BMW i3 AM radio was built-in but due to some compliance issues it was disabled, therefore no AM radio local traffic reports or news headlines are possible.

"AM is not offered due to negative performance influences of the electromagnetic interference of the electric drivetrain" said Rebecca K. Kiehne, a BMW product and technical communications spokesperson. Electric motors cause interference on AM which is why BMW decided to remove this option. "While it could be offered, BMW’s performance standards are very high and we don’t offer a product that meets less than those high standards."

New Flyer Electric Bus

The Electric Bus uses lithium ion rechargeable batteries that can store 200 KWh of electricity. The Siemens Electric Drive System converts three-phase AC power to drive the traction motor via DC power from batteries. When braking, the motor acts as a generator to recover energy. The air compressor and air conditioning compressors are using DC power converted to AC. Another converter is used to supply 24-volt DC power to steering, interior fans, lights, and accessories.