EMC - EV

Electromagnetic Compatibility for Electric Vehicles

Electric Field Shielding

Types of Electromagnetic Coupling: Conducted, Radiation, Magnetic Field, Electric Filed

Electric Field Coupling

The EF lines start on positive charge and end on negative charge from higher voltage conductors to lower voltage conductors. Any two conductors at different potentials (voltages) have electric field lines between them. EF shields are connected to “ground” to maximize their effectiveness.

 

     The electric field lines are passing through ungrounded metallic planes. 

 

Grounding a copper enclosure does not increase or decrease its shielding property but it reduces the crosstalk within the product itself. The ungrounded shield allows coupling signals from circuits within the shielded enclosure. If the device is connected via external cable to another module the ungrounded shield can serve to capacitively couple signals from outside the enclosure. 

Functions provided by MF-WPT system

Stand by and Wake up

The supply device is woken up by a signal from the EV.

Compatibility check

Compatibility of the primary and the secondary devices is checked with the information exchanged at the initialization phase: power classes, operating frequency, magnetic coupling, circuit topology, tuning.

Initial Alignment check

The MF-WPT system will determine that the primary and secondary devices are properly well positioned relative to each other.

Start Power Transfer

The MF-WPT system is capable to transfer the power from the primary device to the secondary device upon the request from the vehicle. The MF-WPT system does not perform power transfer until the command and control communication is properly established and the primary device and secondary device are properly positioned.

Time Scheduled Power Transfer

Perform Power Transfer

MF-WPT system transfers the power from the primary device to the secondary device in accordance with the power demand of the EV. The maximum transferring power of the off-board MF-WPT system must not be exceeded. The vehicle can change the requested transfer power.

Stop Power Transfer

MF-WPT system is able to stop transfer the power from the primary device to the secondary device in accordance with the demand of the EV. The vehicle can requested stop power transfer.

User initiated Stop Power Transfer

MF-WPT system allows the user to terminate of power supply. (e.g. pushing stop button).

Safety monitoring & diagnostics

continuous monitoring of power transfer conditions

continuous monitoring of command & control communication

continuous monitoring of safety conditions

Power Transfer Monitoring: The supply device provide means to verify that the actual output power does not differ from the expected output power by a certain limit; if the limit is exceeded, it shall stop power transfer.

Thermal Monitoring: WPT systems is capable to detect metallic objects and to stop the power transfer.

Live Object Protection: WPT systems provide life object protection by design or may provide means to detect live objects and to stop power transfer.

Failure Conditions: The supply device stops the transfer in case of of power short-circuit, earth leakage, excess temperature, insulation failure, overcurrent, overload conditions.

Ventilation: Verify that the ventilation system of the area is functioning and active.







EV Conductive Charging Time

EV Charging Time & Power Requirement

Range

5 minutes

15 minutes

30 minutes

8 hours

100 miles

390 kW

130kW

65kW

4 kW

400 miles

1560 kW

520 kW

260 kW

16 kW

 

Fast charging shortcomings:

  •  it may compromise battery life
  • increased cost for the charging stations
  • power grid heavy loading

EV Radiated Disturbance Test for Keyless Entry

This test simulates the effects of the radiated magnetic fields on a keyless entry system due to close proximity to other vehicles charging systems. The charging equipment is connected to a resistive load that represents 100 % of the load of maximum.

1. Turn on the charging equipment and allow sufficient time for stabilization.
2. Locate the loop sensor 1 m from the charging equipment face or electrical interface connector being probed. Orient the plane of the loop sensor parallel to the charging equipment faces and parallel to the axis of connectors.
3. Scan the measurement receiver over the applicable frequency range to locate the frequencies of maximum radiation, using the bandwidths and minimum measurement times according to MIL STD 461 or CISPR 16-2-3.
4. Tune the measurement receiver to one of the frequencies or band of frequencies identified in step 3 above.
5. Monitor the output of the measurement receiver while moving the loop sensor (maintaining the 1 m spacing) over the face of the EUT or around the connector. Note the point of maximum radiation for each frequency identified in step 4.
6. At the point of maximum radiation, orient the loop sensor in the vertical plane to give a maximum reading on the measurement receiver and record the reading.
7. Repeat step 4 through step 6 for at least two frequencies of maximum radiation per octave of frequencies below 200 Hz and for at least three frequencies of maximum radiation per octave above 200 Hz.
8. Repeat step 2 through step 7 for each face of the EUT and for each EUT electrical connector.

Sources: MIL STD 461 or CISPR 16-2-3

EMC Requirements Analysis

The automotive OEM EMC requirements analysis is the first step in developing an automotive component level EMC test plan.  The technical information made available by product's CTS (Component Technical Specification) is used to:

  1. review product's family description
  2. review DUT's theory of operation, physical construction, and vehicle packaging
  3. identify DUT's functions and measurable I/O test points
  4. identify critical interface signals
  5. identify potential sources of emissions
  6. define performance criteria for each test point during and after each applicable test method listed by OEM EMC specification

1. Product Family Description

  • Include a general product family description.
  • If the EMC test plan is for more than one product a description of the differences and similarities between the different HW and SW versions must be included.
  • If the maximum complexity DUT is used to represent an entire product family include an explanatory justification/rationale. This can be a matrix showing the family and all functions provided by each member of the family where the maximum complexity DUT covers all functions listed.

2. Theory Of Operation

  • Include an internal block diagram that clearly show what the DUT does.
  • Explain what all DUT's major functions and the internal block diagram.
  • Verify the block diagram against the latest vehicle wiring schematics to confirm that shows:
    • connections to battery and the ignition switch, including signal inputs such as illumination. 
    • fuses and their ratings if connected to vehicle battery.
    • regulated supply parameters if connected externally to it.
    • all external interfaces indicating interactions with other systems, sensors, switches and actuators.
    • any special wiring such as twisted and shielded.
    • where each signal return or ground wire is connected in the vehicle.

3. Physical Construction

  • product package material
  • product package location within vehicle
  • product package customer access
  • number of PCB per package
  • number of connectors per package and their drawing indicating their pin out
  • product's picture / CAD drawing
  • include a module's pin out table and interface description
  • description of product's power return ground
  • description of product case connection to the reference ground
  • show special wiring such as twisted and shielded
  • show if the product is connected internally/externally to a magnetically sensitive or controlled device
  • show product's connection to vehicle
  • specify the type of substrate for each PCB and the number of layers used

4. Identify Critical Interface Signals

  • Is there a list of critical signals included in CTS?
  • Are the items on the list consistent with information provided in sections 1 & 2?
  • Does the I/O table contain all analogue inputs, sensors and communications lines?
  • Does the D&R OEM engineer agree with the critical interfaces?

5. Identify Potential Sources of RF Emissions

  • Is there a list of potential sources of emissions included in CTS?
  • Are they reasonable and consistent with Product complexity? 
  • Examples of sources of emissions: 
    • Clocks
    • Oscillators
    • Communication interfaces
    • Local Oscillators
    • PWM signals
    • Video signals
  • There should be no potential sources of emissions around 150-270 KHz or 0.5-2 MHz due to the high risk of interference with radio reception in LW and MW bands.

6. Performance Criteria for each test point during and after each applicable test method

  • OEM Spec Test Requirements
  • DUT Operating Modes / Functional Classifications
  • DUT Input Requirements
  • DUT Output Requirements
  • Load Box/Test Support Requirements including communication bus
  • DUT Activation, Monitoring, and Functional Verification Manual
  • DUT Test Set-up Diagram
  • Detailed Test Setup and specifics for each OEM Test Method


Shielding Effectiveness

Shielding Effectiveness S = A + R + B (dB)
   A = Absorption Loss
   R = Reflection Loss
   B = Correction Factor (for multiple reflections in the shield)

Electromagnetic Filed Shielding (Far Field)
Assuming an electromagnetic wave that propagates perpendicular to the shield surface:

Absorption Loss A = 131.4 * t * SQRT (f * relative permeability * conductivity) dB
   • increase due to the skin effect
   • is the primary contributor to the shielding effectiveness at high frequencies

   t = thicknes of the shield in meters
   f = frequency

Reflection Loss R = 168 - (10 * log (relative permeability * f / conductivity)) dB
   • decrease with the frequency
   • is the primary contributor to the shielding effectiveness at low frequencies

• For sources with high voltages the dominant near-field is an electrical field.
• For sources with high currents the dominant near-field is a magnetic field.

Electric Field Shielding (Near Field)
Reflection Loss R = 322 - (10 * log (conductivity / relative permeability * f^3 * r^2))
   r = distance between the source and the shield
   electric near-field reflection loss =< far-field reflection loss

Magnetic Field Shielding (Near Field)
Reflection Loss R = 14.57 - (10 * log (conductivity * f * r^2 / relative permeability))
• reflection loss decreases for decreasing frequencies, and is lower than the reflection loss for the plane wave reflection.
• reflection losses are usually negligible for lower frequencies and absorption losses are small for low frequencies too.

Magnetic Field (MF) shielding methods:
• Deviation of the magnetic flux with high permeability material.
• The shorted tuned method, which consists in the generation of opposing fluxes that cancel the magnetic field in the area of interest.

Using magnetic material as shield:
• The permeability of a magnetic material decreases by increasing the frequency (depends only on the material).
• The permeability of a magnetic material decreases by increasing the MF strength (depends on the material and the section of the magnetic circuit).

The steel is a better magnetic field shield at low frequencies than good conductors like aluminium or copper. However at high frequencies, good conductors provide better magnetic shielding.

Shielding Effectiveness

  • For non-magnetic material increases with the frequency, therefore, it is recommended to calculate the attenuation for the lowest frequency of interest.
  • For magnetic materials may reduce due to the decrease of the permeability with the frequency.

EMI Control Techniques

EMI suppression involves grounding, shielding, and filtering.

1. Grounding

An ideal ground plane is a zero-potential, zero impedance body that can be used as a reference for all signals in associated circuitry, and to which any undesired current can be transferred for the elimination of its effects.

The multiple-point grounding minimizes ground lead lengths. The ground plane might be a ground wire that is carried throughout the system or a large conductive body.

Bonding

The physical implementation for grounding is done through bonding of a low-impedance path between two metal surfaces to make a structure homogeneous with respect to the flow of electrical currents, thus avoiding the development of potentials between the metallic parts, since such potentials may result in EMI.

  • provide protection from electrical shock
  • power circuit current return paths
  • antenna ground plane connections
  • minimize the potential difference between the devices
  • can carry large fault current
  • direct bond is a metal-tometal contact between the elements connected
  • indirect bond is a contact through the use of conductive jumpers

Bond Quality

The dc resistance Rdc = length of the bond / (conductivity * cross-sectional area)

The ac resistance Rac =  length of the bond / (conductivity * width of the bond * skin depth)

Bonding effectiveness can be expressed as the difference (in dB) between the induced voltages on an equipment case with and without the bond straps.

2. Shielding

The purpose of shielding is to confine radiated energy to a specific region or to prevent radiated energy from entering a specific region. Shields may be in the form of partitions and boxes as well as in the form of cable and connector shields.

Shield types:

  • solid
  • nonsolid (e.g., screen)
  • braid, as is used on cables.

Shielding Effectiveness SE = 10*log(10) * (incident power density / transmitted power density)

  • incident power density is the power density at a measuring point before a shield is installed and the
  • transmitted power is the power density at the same point after the shield is in place
  • electric field strength SE = 20*log(10) * (Ei / Et)
  • magnetic field strength SE = 20*log(10) * (Hi / Ht)

3. Filtering
An electrical filter is a network of lumped or distributed constant resistors, inductors, and capacitors that offers comparatively little opposition to certain frequencies, while blocking the passage of other frequencies. Filters are used to substantially reduce the levels of conducted interference.

Insertion Loss IL = 20*log(10) * (V1 / V2)

  • V1 is the output voltage of a signal source with the filter in the circuit
  • V2 is the output voltage of the signal source without the use of the filter

Low-pass filters IL = 10*log(10) * (1 + F^2) dB

  • F = PI*f*R*C for capacitive filter (f = frequency)
  • F = PI*f*L/R for inductive filter (f = frequency)

Lumped System is an electrical circuit with passive elements (e.g. R, L, C) that are constant.
For example, the current at a capacitor with capacity C is i(t) = C * (dv(t) / dt)

A lumped element size is much smaller than the wavelength of the applied voltages and currents. In this case wave propagation effects may be neglected.

Distributed System is an electrical circuit with passive elements (e.g. R, L, C) where the  inductance, capacity and resistance are not constant but functions of time and space length. This leads to partial derivatives of i(t,x) and v(t,x) in t (time) and x (position).