EMC - EV

Electromagnetic Compatibility for Electric Vehicles

IEC 61000-4-4 (Electric Fast Transients / Burst)

A burst arc occurs when a mechanical contact is open during the switching process. Burst sources:
• Circuit Breakers in electrical circuits
• High Voltage switchgear
• 110/230V Power Supply systems
• 24V Control Lines

A burst has a single pulse rise time/duration of 5 ns / 50 ns from a 50 Ohm source impedance.
Bursts of 15 ms duration with a repetition rate of 5 kHz (or 100 kHz) are applied every 300 ms.

Voltage test levels:
• Power ports: 0.5 KV, 1 KV, 2 KV, 4 kV
• Signal and Control ports: 0.25 KV, 0.5 KV, 1 KV, 2 kV

• Coupling method is used to transfer the transient to the DUT.
• Decoupling method is used to block the transient from entering the mains and damaging other equipment connected in the network.

• Power line coupling is done with direct CDNs (Coupling/Decoupling Networks).
• Signal line coupling is done with a CCC (Capacitive Coupling Clamp): two metal plates which sandwich the line under test (cable) to provide a distributed coupling capacitance.

Test waveform verification is mandatory prior to each test.
For equipment connected to power ports all lines are coupled simultaneously.

Christian Rosu

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Spectrum is a continuum of all electromagnetic waves (EM) traveling at constant speed (300,000 km/s). An electromagnetic wave consists of electric and magnetic fields which vibrates thus making waves. EM wave wavelength decreases as its frequency increases. Shorter the wavelength, higher is the EM wave energy. Waves with higher frequency can carry a higher energy. The energy is measured in Joules or Electron-Volt (1 J = 6.241509 *10^18 eV).

Wave speed is independent of frequency. Frequency has an inverse relationship to the wavelength, λ (lambda). Lambda * Frequency = Speed





Frequency Allocation Charts:

US: 2011_US_rf_spectrum_chart.pdf (334.3KB)

CANADA: 2014_Canadian_Radio_Spectrum_Chart.pdf (279.1KB)

UK: uk_frequency_allocations_chart.pdf (325.8KB)

AUSTRALIA: aust_rf_spectrum_allocations_chart.pdf (296.7KB)

CAN Bus Higher Layer Implementations

As the CAN standard does not include tasks of application layer protocols, such as flow control, device addressing, and transportation of data blocks larger than one message, and above all, application data, many implementations of higher layer protocols were created. Several are standardized for a business area, although all can be extended by each manufacturer. For passenger cars, each manufacturer has its own standard. Among these implementations are:

• ARINC 825 (for the aviation industry)

• CANaerospace (for the aviation industry)

• CAN Kingdom

• CANopen (used for industrial automation)

• CCP / XCP

• DeviceNet (used for industrial automation)

• EnergyBus (used for electrical vehicles)

• GMLAN (for General Motors)

• ISO 15765-4

• ISO 11783 or ISOBUS (agriculture)

• ISO 14229

• SAE J1939 (heavy road vehicles)

• ISO 11992 for heavy trailers

• MilCAN

CAN bus 10

• NMEA 2000 (marine industry)

• RV-C (used for recreational vehicles)

• SafetyBUS p (used for industrial automation)

• SmartCraft

• Smart Distributed System (SDS)

• VSCP (used for building automation)


Christian Rosu


CAN Bus Standards

There are several CAN physical layer and other standards:

ISO 11898-1: CAN Data Link Layer and Physical Signaling

ISO 11898-2: CAN High-Speed Medium Access Unit

ISO 11898-2 uses a two-wire balanced signaling scheme. It is the most used physical layer in car

Powertrain applications and industrial control networks.

ISO 11898-3: CAN Low-Speed, Fault-Tolerant, Medium-Dependent Interface

ISO 11898-4: CAN Time-Triggered Communication

ISO 11898-4 standard defines the time-triggered communication on CAN (TTCAN). It is based on the

CAN data link layer protocol providing a system clock for the scheduling of messages.

ISO 11898-5: CAN High-Speed Medium Access Unit with Low-Power Mode

ISO 11898-6: CAN High-speed medium access unit with selective wake-up functionality

ISO 11992-1: CAN fault-tolerant for truck/trailer communication

ISO 11783-2: 250 kbit/s, Agricultural Standard

ISO 11783-2 uses four unshielded twisted wires; two for CAN and two for terminating bias circuit

(TBC) power and ground. This bus is used on agricultural tractors. This bus is intended to provide

interconnectivity with any implementation adhering to the standard.

ISO 15765-2 also called ISO-TP, is a standard for flow control and handling of messages larger than eight bytes.

SAE J1939-11: 250 Kbit/s, Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)

SAE J1939-15: 250 Kbit/s, Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) (reduced layer)

The SAE J1939 standard uses a two-wire twisted pair, −11 has a shield around the pair while −15 does not. SAE 1939 defines also application data and is widely used in heavy-duty (truck) and autobus industry as well as in agricultural & construction equipment.


SAE = Society of Automotive Engineers; NMEA = National Marine Educators Association; SDS = Smart Distributed System



CAN bus (Controller Area Network)

CAN bus (for controller area network) is a vehicle bus standard designed to allow microcontrollers and devices to communicate with each other within a vehicle without a host computer. CAN bus is a message-based protocol, designed specifically for automotive applications but now also used in other areas such as aerospace, maritime, industrial automation and medical equipment. 

CAN bus is one of five protocols used in the OBD-II vehicle diagnostics standard. The OBD-II standard has been mandatory for all cars and light trucks sold in the United States since 1996, and the EOBD standard has been mandatory for all petrol vehicles sold in the European Union since 2001 and all diesel vehicles since 2004. 


Automotive Applications


A modern automobile may have as many as 70 electronic control units (ECU) for various subsystems. Typically the biggest processor is the engine control unit (also engine control module/ECM or Powertrain Control Module/PCM in automobiles); others are used for transmission, airbags, antilock braking/ABS, cruise control, electric power steering/EPS, audio systems, windows, doors, mirror adjustment, battery and recharging systems for hybrid/electric cars, etc. Some of these form independent subsystems, but communications among others are essential. A subsystem may need to control actuators or receive feedback from sensors. The CAN standard was devised to fill this need.

The CAN bus may be used in vehicles to connect the engine control unit and transmission, or (on a different bus) to connect the door locks, climate control, seat control, etc.

Today the CAN bus is also used as a fieldbus in general automation environments, primarily due to the low cost of some CAN controllers and processors.

Bosch holds patents on the technology, and manufacturers of CAN-compatible microprocessors pay license fees to Bosch, which are normally passed on to the customer in the price of the chip. Manufacturers of products with custom ASICs or FPGAs containing CAN-compatible modules may need to pay a fee for the CAN Protocol License.

Technology

CAN is a multi-master broadcast serial bus standard for connecting electronic control units (ECUs). Each node is able to send and receive messages, but not simultaneously. A message consists primarily of an ID (identifier), which represents the priority of the message, and up to eight data bytes. The improved CAN (CAN FD) extends the length of the data section to up to 64 bytes per frame. It is transmitted serially onto the bus. This signal pattern is encoded in non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and is sensed by all nodes.  

The devices that are connected by a CAN network are typically sensors, actuators, and other control devices. These devices are not connected directly to the bus, but through a host processor and a CAN controller. If the bus is idle which is represented by recessive level (TTL=5V), any node may begin to transmit. If two or more nodes begin sending messages at the same time, the message with the more dominant ID (which has more dominant bits, i.e., zeroes) will overwrite other nodes' less dominant IDs, so that eventually (after this arbitration on the ID) only the dominant message remains and is received by all nodes. This mechanism is referred to as priority based bus arbitration. Messages with numerically smaller values of IDs have higher priority and are transmitted first.


Each node requires:

Host processor

• The host processor decides what received messages mean and which messages it wants to transmit itself.

• Sensors, actuators and control devices can be connected to the host processor.

CAN controller (hardware with a synchronous clock).

Receiving: the CAN controller stores received bits serially from the bus until an entire message is available, which can then be fetched by the host processor (usually after the CAN controller has triggered an interrupt).

Sending: the host processor stores it’s transmit messages to a CAN controller, which transmits the bits serially onto the bus.


Transceiver

Receiving: it adapts signal levels from the bus to levels that the CAN controller expects and has protective circuitry that protects the CAN controller.

Transmitting: it converts the transmit-bit signal received from the CAN controller into a signal that is sent onto the bus.


Bit rates up to 1 Mbit/s are possible at network lengths below 40 m. Decreasing the bit rate allows longer network distances (e.g., 500 m at 125 kbit/s). The improved CAN (CAN FD) extends the speed of the data section by a factor of up to 8 of the arbitration bit rate.

The CAN data link layer protocol is standardized in ISO 11898-1. This standard describes mainly the data link layer (composed of the logical link control (LLC) sublayer and the media access control (MAC) sublayer) and some aspects of the physical layer of the OSI reference model.  All the other protocol layers are the network designer's choice.

Sources: Bosch

Christian Rosu

EMC/EMI Acronyms


ABS

Anti-lock Braking System

AC

Alternating Current

ADAS

Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

AFE

Active Front End

ALSE

Absorber Lined Shielded Enclosure

AM

Amplitude Modulation

AN

Artificial Network

BCI

Bulk Current Injection

BEV

Battery Electric Vehicle

BS

British Standard

C2X

Car infrastructure communications

CAN

Controller Area Network

CARS

Competitive Automotive Regulatory System

CISPR

Comité International Spécial des Perturbations Radioélectriques

CNS

Central Nervous System

CPT

Contactless Power Transfer

CSA

Canadian Standards Association

CWT

Coaxial Winding Transformer

DC

Direct Current

DSRC

Dedicated Short Range Communications

DWPT

Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer

FEV

Fully Electric Vehicle

EAS

Electronic Article Surveillance

EC

European Commission

EC WVTA

EC Whole Vehicle Type Approval

EM

Electromagnetic

EMC

Electromagnetic Compatibility

EN

European Committee for Standardization

EREV

Extended Range Electric Vehicle

ESA

Electrical/electronic sub-assembly

ESD

Electrostatic Discharge

ESS

Energy Storage System

EU

European Union

EV

Electric Vehicle

EV2SDS

EV to wireless Supply Device Signal

EVCC

Electric Vehicle Communication Controller

EVSE

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

FM

Frequency Modulated

HEMIS

Electrical Powertrain Health Monitoring for Increased Safety of FEVs

HEV

Hybrid Electric Vehicle

HV

High Voltage

ICE

Internal Combustion Engine

ICNIRP

International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection

INV

Inverter, DC-to-AC Conversion

IEC

International Electro-technical Commission

IGBT

Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

I/O

Input / Output

IPT

Inductive Power Transfer

ISO

International Standards Organization

LCL

Inductor–Capacitor–Inductor

LiC

Lithium Capacitor

LISN

Line Impedance Stabilization Network

LPE

Low Power Excitation

LV

Low Voltage

LVD

Low Voltage Directive

LVDWP

Low Voltage Directive Working Party

M1

Category of passenger vehicles having no more than 8 seats in addition to the driver’s seat

MIRA

Motorsport Industry Research Agency

N1

Category of goods vehicles having a maximum mass of 3.5 tons

OBC

On Board Charger

OATS

Open Area Test Site

OFCOM

Office of Communications

PDCC

Primary Device Communication Controller

PEV

Plug-in Electric Vehicle

PHEV

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

PFC

Power Factor Corrector

PHMS

Prognostic Health Monitoring System

PNS

Peripheral Nervous System

RESS

Rechargeable Energy Storage System

RF

Radio Frequency

RTTE

Radio and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment

SAE

Society of Automotive Engineers (USA)

SAR

Specific Absorption Rate

SBD

Schottky Barrier Diode

SDCC

Secondary Device Communication Controller

SECC

Supply Equipment Communication Controller

SOC

State of charge.

TEM

Transverse Electromagnetic

UNECE

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

V2I

Vehicle to Infrastructure

VAR

Volt-Ampere-Reactive

WLN

Wireless Local Network

WPT

Wireless Power Transfer

WPTB

Wireless Charger Base Unit